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Each layer in the energy pyramid represents the stored energy in biomass in that layer. This energy is obtained from the previous layer. Because every layer uses a certain amount of energy needed for survival (combustion of sugars and fats through respiratory processes) obtained from the previous layer, each subsequent level is smaller than the previous one. ...


I will assume that you are talking about Mallards, although other wildfowl are likely to exhibit similar behaviors. Mallards aren't actually solitary during the summer, instead they form breeding pairs. They form groups (sords) in the winter to migrate and for protection while moulting. ...

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