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Adaptation is a change in a trait as a response to selection. As you ask for local adaptation I assume you want examples where sub-populations have either come under different selection and adapted differently, or cases where sub-populations have come under similar selection but not all have had the necessary genetic variation to evolve, i.e. selection has ...


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According to http://baliadvertiser.biz/mosquitoes/, more specifically the 3rd paragraph: The next easiest solution is to add a submersible pump, a waterfall or fountain. Flowing water is pleasant and will also enhance the water quality. If it is possible keep the water flowing at all times. Mosquito larvae can only survive in stagnant water. Newly ...


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My suggestions, based on mosquitoe projects I've heard about in Sweden, would be to: Thin vegetation along the shores Remove accumulated detritus Manage grasslands along the shore, by grazing if possible. The idea here is to remove the stagnant pools where mosquitoes develop, either coming from rainfall or spring flooding/snowmelt. By removing pools and ...


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There are a number of environmentally destructive methods that would be effective, including draining the lake, covering the surface with a continuous layer of oil, or adding toxins to the water, but I'm assuming you're looking for a method that will have the minimum possible off-target effect. Different mosquito species breed in different habitats and are ...


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Don't salinate the lake. It'll be a nightmare to maintain. The 'standard' biocontrol measure is to release 'mosquitofish', but outside their native range they're almost as good at killing native mosquito-eating fish as they are at eating mosquitoes. Find some native fish(perhaps in the bigger lake?) and stock your pond with them. Small fish are probably ...


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As noted in the other two answers, neither Earth nor Sun will have an infinite life span, so nothing depending on either can be infinite. Weathering of rocks can lock up CO2 in calcium carbonates. That's been going on for a while now, and does not seem to have put a crimp in life on earth. Much more serious, although I have not seen it quantified, is ...


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Probably Eukaryotes. Specifically, plants. This is a very fundamental question of life that is often overlooked. It goes without saying that plants and animals are the strongest contenders. However bacteria may also rival them. Be aware though that this is a contentious claim given more thorough estimations that take into account fluctuations in bacterial ...


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First, to be clear, the very act of cannibalism does not cause the development of prions, but the consumption of an animal infected with a compatible form of them, particularly when eating nervous or digestive tissue (i.e. the brain, spine, stomach, or intestines). To directly answer your question, yes, there are other animals that are susceptible to prions ...


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I'll throw one more application into the pot. Population dynamics also forms the foundations of population genetics, population ecology, and more recently plays an important role in frameworks such as evolutionary game theory and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Here the models are also used as a type of theoretical exercise or thought experiment (as a previous ...


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Good question. There is no fundamental difference between parasites and predators. Ecological Interaction In terms of ecological interaction, they are both defined as an interaction where one species benefits and the other suffers from the interaction. Intuition parasite vs predator In general predation is viewed as a big individual eating a smaller ...


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Parasitism – a parasite that lives on or in an host, obtaining food from the host and harming it. Example: Ixodes ticks use white tailed deer as a host Parasite is smaller and weaker than the host Parasite may feed over the host from outside or inside In parasite-host relationship a weaker organism is benefitted Host specificity is more common The host ...


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A parasite may or may not kill the host. It's basic motive is to constantly derive nutrition from the host. More a sort of one time investment and as an interest you keep getting the nutrition. Whereas a predator's motive is to kill the host to satisfy it's hunger. One kill and eat can be a taken as a case of consideration here.


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Considering your assumption: I'm just looking at the exponential part, where the simple exponential equation works. If we assume there's sufficient nutrients for bacteria to grow unchecked for a number of hours (more-or-less true in a real culture) In your original model you are using discrete states and fixed time steps. So, if 30 min is one ...


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Real bacteria population will likely reach some carrying capacity that will prevent them to grow exponentially. As a consequence, the exponential model will be a good fit for early growth only but after a while, one will need to use some other model (typically a logistic model). Logistic model Here, I quickly present one standard model of logistic growth ...


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Dead wood is indeed very important to the food chain, and to the ecology and biodiversity of a forest. Lots of biota depend on the presence of dead wood; many species of insects and fungi only live on dead wood. See for example this study of fungi in Danish Beech forests. The amount of dead wood present depends, apart from management, on the type of forest, ...



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