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I don't think one can fully answer to such a broad question. It depends on the population, the environment (presence of predators for example), the genetic background (having a big stomach is good but only if the intestin is big too), the population's social relations, .. Many traits are correlated and one might want to say that a given trait is beneficial ...


4

Asterosaponins are the class of compounds - they have a cholesterol like organic core. Apparently, these saponins make pore-forming complexes with Δ5-sterols of cell membranes, and so are deadly to all usual kind of life, including bacteria and fungi. Quote: Starfish and sea cucumber cell membranes are resistant to their own saponines due to the ...


2

One way to do this is to use the "humid operative temperature" equation, or something similar. A variant of this equation, specifically for estimating leaf temperature, is derived using a leaf energy balance equation in chapter 14.1 of the Environmental Biophysics book (cited below). I'll let you look up the actual equation since I'm not sure how to do ...



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