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15

A hormone is defined as "a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism" (I'm just taking Wikipedia definition). Hormones work by binding to specific receptors present on their target cells so, if there is something in the environment that mimics the hormone, by ...


13

Yes, they do. The ovaries produce both testosterone and estrogen. Relatively small quantities of testosterone are released into your bloodstream by the ovaries and adrenal glands. Sex hormones are involved in the growth, maintenance, and repair of reproductive tissues [1]. The serum testosterone level in women with no acne, hirsutism, or menstrual ...


11

Yes. Menopause is common for long-lived mammals. For instance, in the wild, killer whales go in a sort of menopause as reported in 2009 by Ward et al. Front Zool. 2009 Feb 3;6:4. So it is not due to captivity. According to a Nature review, reproductive cessation has also been documented in non-human primates, rodents, whales, dogs, rabbits, elephants and ...


11

Women have erections too! These erections are called clitoral erection. These erections are usually accompanied by vaginal lubrification. Just like men, the absence of norepinephrine during the REM phase of the sleep causes erections. In women, this phenomenon is called Nocturnal clitoral tumescence while it is called Nocturnal penile tumescence in men. In ...


10

Short answer: yes. Although clearly the infradian changes in steroid hormones in females are quite "obvious", other changes are less evident, but happen nonetheless in males as well as in females. Most of the hormones produced by endocrine organs such as the hypothalamus (a region at the base of the brain) or the hypophisis are not secreted in a continuous ...


10

Although male testes are responsible for huge testosterone secretion, testosterone can be produced by other organs both in males and females. So, women do have testosterone. Similarly, estrogen is also produced in men and not only in women. In addition, both sexes produce the androgen and the estrogen receptors, so endogeneous or external testosterone will ...


10

I'll point you to this article by A. Tuiten et al. To quickly answer your question, yes, testosterone does have an enhancing effect on the sexual behaviour of human healthy adult females. The (admittedly small) study indicated that after an dose of testosterone was given to the women there was found: a statistically significantly [sic] increase in ...


9

Fetal testis produces testosterone from cholesterol. There is a peak of production around 15 weeks of gestation (the "masculinization programming window"). So the genotype of the fetus can affect testosterone levels directly via effects on the biosynthesis of the hormone, or indirectly by defective regulation of the pathway's activity. However, exposure to ...


9

Some assumptions made in the question. There is an implicit assumption in your question which I don't think to be correct: you assume that any reaction of the human organism to stress (let's substitute "fright" by "stress" in your question) is a physiological reaction, meaning that this reaction somehow helps the organism to overcome the stressful ...


8

That book was likely crap, but in short the answer is yes, probably there is a genetic basis in the metabolism, with human 'types' that could benefit from a personalized nutrition. The discipline studying these relationship is called nutrigenomics, and the main concept is similar to what is being told for personalized medicine. The bad news is that ...


8

There is a good open access review about the effects of different hormones on sexual arousal. In most instances, the hormone is acting on the brain, which signals the information to gonads and genitals via nerves (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis). However, in a study in which I have participated, we found a more direct and probably ancient ...


7

In short, because the easiest way to get the protein coding sequence of the gene is to create cDNA based on the mRNA, and insulin mRNA is only expressed in pancreatic cells. Insulin gene consists of two exons. That means, amplifying the genome will not give us a coding sequence -- two pieces of that sequence will be interrupted by a large, non-coding ...


6

I found this - Celec et al. (2003) Circatrigintan cycle of salivary testosterone in human male. Biological Rhythm Research 34: 305-315 Conclusion. We believe that this is the first study demonstrating the existence of circatrigintan and circavigintan rhythms of testosterone in human males. Our findings might have implications in human physiology ...


6

In general the answer is yes. However, the degree in which this is true and the degree in which the human body can adjust and adapt to new food types is larger misjudged. I am of the opinion that metabolism is largely controlled by the microbiome. It is largely recognized that the gut biome does adjust depending on diet and will also vary depending on drug ...


6

Well... I'm excited that my first contribution to this site will include a study of strippers! http://whywereason.wordpress.com/2011/06/29/menstruation-attraction-why-females-shouldnt-flirt-while-menstruating-and-why-bears-can-smell-the-menstruation/ I have read other, more detailed analysis of this (and similar) research that suggests strongly that our ...


6

From what I have gathered, I would think that humans do have receptors that are able to detect pheromones. For example, some studies that have indicated human responses to pheromones. Of these pheromone responses, some have been traced to the olfactory mucosa and olfactory epithelium. The trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) for which humans have 7 ...


6

An hormone is not different from most other molecules. To have an effect on a cell it binds to a (more or less specific) receptor, located either on the plasma membrane or inside the cell, and it initiates an intracellular cascade of events1. There are several ways an hormone can have different effects: there can be multiple receptors for the same ...


6

Yes, something can be both a hormone and an enzyme. There are a group of hormones known as peptide hormones. These are proteins (such as enzymes) that act as hormones indirectly (and maybe directly too?). A hormone is a chemical secreted by a cell that has some effect on another cell elsewhere in the body. In this case, the chemical just happens to be an ...


6

The quick answer is that only certain cell types express the required steroid hormone receptors that are necessary to induce signaling and gene regulation when bound to their target steroid hormones, like estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, etc. If no receptor is present, the steroid doesn't effect any change. The second part of the answer involves the ...


5

The real answer is probably more than you want, but its easy to do better than the list above. I took a look through GEO for human circadian expression data and surprisingly I only found 2. Looking at GSE2703 - the rhesus circadian expression experiment, they have shown 355 genes that are rhythmically expressed. This is not a great experiment because ...


5

For treatment reasons cortisol is named Hydrocortisone (probably to avoid problems with the similar names) and this is often only referenced to as cortisone (although this is not correct). Cortisol (Hydrocortisone) is the active form, while cortison is not. See here for some more details. Glucocorticoids (like Cortisol or Prednisolone) suppress acute ...


4

The human/animal digestive tract breaks down food chemically (with low pH/acid), enzymatically (like proteases and glycolytic enaymes which break down protein and sugars respectively), as well as symbiotically (bacteria participates in the breakdown of some compounds in the gut). The results are released into the blood stream for the most of the body to ...


4

I have to say that this seems like a really odd approach to figuring out your diet. The question of whether insulin increases satiety has been more specifically studied in the literature, as has the satiety generated by equicaloric portions of various kinds of foods, as have the actual effects of various specific diets in human feeding studies. If you do a ...


4

There is no evidence that postnatal hormone exposure can change the sexual sexual preference of an individual. However atypical hormonal stimulation of the fetus can induce homosexuality. Homosexuality does not develop without a variety of social factors which are up-to-date mostly unexplained. But can develop without hormonal stimulation. As real life ...


4

The release of the hormone melatonin is responsible for the feeling of sleepiness. It is released by the pineal gland and production starts when the light fades, as it's production is inhibited by light stimulation of the retina, the onset of the production is called dim-light melatonin onset. Artificial supplementation can increase sleep quality and ...


4

Yes, both steroid and peptidic hormones can enter the brain, the obvious proof being that the brain responds to changing blood concentration of hormones. The situation is different for steroid hormones (such as estrogen, testosterone, cortisol etc) which are small and lipophilic, and peptidic hormones (such as insulin, ghrelin, prolactin etc) which are big ...


4

In this context, euthyroidism refers to the amount of hormone present. What is a goiter: The term “goiter” simply refers to the abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is important to know that the presence of a goiter does not necessarily mean that the thyroid gland is malfunctioning. A goiter can occur in a gland that is producing too much ...


3

As to your main question, I imagine the Paul Allan Brain Atlas has what you're looking for. In 3D even. Human Brain Map D1 Receptor D2 Receptor Also comes in mouse flavored. Offhand, I cannot be of assistance for the second question.


3

Let's assume that pleasure from sexual intercourse might be indicative of some sort of orgasm. Then this would suggest that any evidence of autoerotic behaviour would point to the existence of orgasm, or certanly physical pleasure. I found this quotation on the Wikipedia page for Animal sexual behavior, amongst a lot of information about mammals : Many ...



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