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You should understand that it is not the neurotransmitter that is responsible for an effect; it is the neural network that causes an effect and the neurotransmitter is just a mediator. In CNS, glutamate is generally used in excitatory synapses whereas GABA is chiefly used in inhibitory synapses. Similarly, in peripheral nervous system epinephrine and ...


This is a combination of multiple regulatory systems. Most genes are not regulated by a single factor, but by many. Moreover in eukaryotic organisms there is also epigenetic, which "inactivates" permanently certain areas of the genome by compacting these zones forming heterochromatin. Moreover, even when we are interested in a single function a TF might ...

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