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It is yet to be discovered by scientists. But there is a new study that finds that brain cells called astrocytes supply the urge to sleep by releasing adenosine a chemical known to have sleep-inducing effects. The chemical accumulates in the brain during waking hours, eventually helping to stimulate the unique patterns of brain activity that occur during ...


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For skeletal muscles, you'll find a discussion in the Physics SE: http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/1984/why-does-holding-something-up-cost-energy-while-no-work-is-being-done To make things short: while holding a position, muscles need to maintain a given length. However, internally, the muscle looks like a collapsible array of filaments, with ...


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You should note that even in pure mechanical examples, the energy consumed may not be equal to work done because some energy is also used up in countering the frictional force. In your example you consider an object kept on a wooden table and in this case the weight is balanced by the reaction force by the table. You have not considered the material ...



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