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According to this study, model data shows a maximum pressure of 110 kPa, that's 16 psi and only 1.086 atm: The three-phase process involved in the beetles explosive secretory discharge (ESD) process. The inlet size is shown as a proportion of the inlet radius. During the first phase of refill and heating (blue), only the inlet valve is open. ...


2

First, I think it is more useful to post separate questions, at least for each taxonomic group (birds, butterflies etc). To make a question a dumping ground for all sorts of species determination pictures is a bad idea. That said, the butterflies seem to belong to the families Nymphalidae, (nr 5) and Papilionidae (Swallowtails) (nr 7), judged by overall ...


1

To answer your question as written, the best option I have for species ID is still to post to fora (such as this one), where experts (or interested amateurs like myself) can manually identify them. Computer identification, although much better nowadays, is still some way away from being able to recognise all species. 4 looks very much like a Mourning Dove ...


2

Short answer Ants use specialized facial structures called mandibles to cut, shape and carry soil and other matter. Background you say "I know ants break off soil in small quantities, so that a single ant carries very little soil...". On the contrary I would say - Ants can carry relatively a lot of soil, as they can lift up to about 100 times their own ...


6

Butterflies have a number of defence mechanisms, even if they don't have the ability to sting (as adults - see spines in larvae below). Here is a non-comprehensive list of some defensive mechanisms: Toxins or repellents, which can be present in both adults and larvae. Aposematism (warning coloration) Mimicry, both in the form of resembling other poisonous ...



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