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7

Months to years - although the actual duration in a specific environment depends on the nature of that environment and is tied to oxygen level. Higher oxygen, faster degradation. Less oxygen, the estrogen molecules interconvert among various closely related molecules which hampers both their detection and their degradation. For more info, please see: ...


5

The cost would increase; either because pollination services are not provided and the supply is decreased; or because the cost to producers goes up as they must pay for artificial pollination. See the extremely detailed analysis in Winfree et al. edit I imagine what you're actually asking for is a $ figure "per apple". This depends on the location, crop, ...


4

Ignoring for the moment the question of politics, let's consider the various definitions of the term "invasive species" that are in use. Colautti and MacIsaac write in their discussion of invasive species terminology (1): The greatest confusion [among the discussed ecological terms] surrounds the common term ‘invasive’ and its various derivatives ...


4

The problem is not really that we don't understand some stuff (lthough this is certainly true) but that an ecosystem, or the biosphere is a highly complex network of interactions. This network is continuously displaying some chaotic (determinist but not foreseeable) behavior. In such a system it becomes very hard or practically impossible to predict what the ...


4

The roots do actually continue to hold soil without being alie. The stabilizing properties are structural in nature. You begin to lose those though as the roots decompose, and the important roots against erosion, millions of fine root hairs, will go first. But leaving the roots in on a dead tree will help for a bit, but isn't a long term solution.


3

Most animals are not well adapted to deal with avalanches. For example, more mountain goats are killed by rock slides than by predators. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_species_150_11_2.html Meanwhile, a mountain at risk of snow avalanche must be deep in snow, right? At that point, there is very little food to be found; it's all ...


3

Many organisms including plants, bacteria, insects, fishes and even mammals have been GMed. Most of them have experimental purposes, but GM crops have been released for commercial purposes. Maybe the most amazing between them is triticale, which is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale). Triticale, BT Potato, BT Tomato, BT Maize (I am not sure), BT ...


3

Remi.b's answer is spot on - predicting the effects of losing a given species is nigh on impossible. However, I do think that there are some general trends that can give us some intuition, and make the campaign to protect certain species more than just an ethical issue. Biodiversity (i.e. having a wide range of different organisms (and genetically diverse ...


2

Calories and dollars are the most obvious and straightforward, but including additional variables complicates the accounting. . A great paper that used energy has been updated in a more recent publication. Emergy is an interesting alternative. Current work includes the Natural Captial project that "aims to integrate the values of nature into all major ...



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