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As an elaboration of my comment. Summary: Replication is required in GWAS studies to account for non-random technical biases. An example of such bias is, for example, a chip used for genotyping giving consistently incorrect genotypes for a locus. In this situation adding more subjects will not correct for this effect and therefore the only solution is to ...


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As with all serious scientific result GWAS results need to validated by others. In this case it think is extremely important because these studies link mutations to diseases or in more general given genotypes to phenotypes, thus pointing out possible causes. So validating these results with the use of independent "samples" is indeed crucial. But as I said ...


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This will be only a partial answer, I don't know about zoonosis. Probably, increase in population mobility helped in spreading disease. Planes, ships, movement due to wars allowed for higher rate of travel/migration, thus facilitating quicker spreading of the virus from continent to continent. See recent measles outbreak in California, US, started by single ...



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