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I couldn't find any information about ants starving in times of plenty, most likely since it's difficult to determine whether an ant colony is "letting" certain members starve or whether the ants have just died for whatever reason. To your second question, though, yes! This paper, The Effect of Colony Size and Starvation on Food Flow in the Fire Ant by ...


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The closest thing you will find to what you're looking for, I think, are animals with multiple different mating strategies where one sex (usually the male) can have multiple distinct phenotypes. Some examples include: Patas monkeys, where some males are large and have harems of females while others are dubbed "sneak maters" and instead of having their own ...


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Tetrahymena thermophila is an organism with 7 different "fuzzy" genders, not only male and female. Its seven sexes are rather prosaically named I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. An individual of a given sex can mate with individuals of any except its own, so there are 21 possible orientations. Here is the link: Zoologger: The hairy beast with seven fuzzy sexes


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I will assume that you are talking about Mallards, although other wildfowl are likely to exhibit similar behaviors. Mallards aren't actually solitary during the summer, instead they form breeding pairs. They form groups (sords) in the winter to migrate and for protection while moulting. ...


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From this paper about black-headed gulls responding to a hedgehog: The gull might peck the intruder, or strike it with its feet. Pecks were mostly directed at the hedgehog's head and might be delivered after a horizontal approach with the wings partly lifted. Although not directed at the eyes specifically, they observed the birds directing attacks ...


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Genetic view of adaptation: Do note that this is looking at the view from the POV of a gene. Please read the comments below this answer, for a small discussion on the kin selection hypothesis. Do note that I do not study evolutionary psychology, or work on the level of the population. This is a bit of a misconception, as nature really doesn't work like ...



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