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Zabner et al (J. Biol. Chem., 1995, 270, 18997-19007) monitored the lipid-DNA complex formation and uptake which was found to be predominantly by endocytosis. Dot blot experiment shows that cells (50% population) took up 60% of the DNA. The DNA-protein complex was observed to be deposited in the perinuclear cytoplasm and formed a series of regularly packed ...


12

Yes you could. It used to be a big deal before antibiotics were discovered, and continued for a bit in the Soviet Union. However, due to the success of antibiotics, it fell out of grace. Due to the lower level of applied research in the Soviet Union (not research itself, although equipment might have been often outdated a bit and the Soviets did isolate ...


20

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? Yes. The specific class you're referring to is called a "bacteriophage". There's quite a bit of research going on surrounding phage therapy as a stand-in or replacement for traditional antibiotics. Here's a Nature Biotechnology article from 2004 that discusses your very topic. It is ...


11

Strictly speaking, all nucleated (eukaryotic) cells contain circular DNA. In addition to the nucleus, the mitochondria (which break down food molecules and create chemical energy) and chloroplasts (which facilitate photosynthesis) also have small stores of their own DNA and this DNA is circular. This adds weight to the hypothesis that these organelles were ...


10

Yes there are prokaryotes with linear chromosomes (especially archaea). Eukayotic chromosomes are almost always linear but this, study reports that yeasts with a loss of function mutation in the ATM homolog genes TEL1 and rad3, form circular chromosomes as a consequence of lack of telomeres. Upon prolonged culture these yeasts were found to undergo mitosis ...



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