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As an elaboration of my comment. Summary: Replication is required in GWAS studies to account for non-random technical biases. An example of such bias is, for example, a chip used for genotyping giving consistently incorrect genotypes for a locus. In this situation adding more subjects will not correct for this effect and therefore the only solution is to ...


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Short answer is that higher temperature favors annealing of longer sequences. There are number of ways to calculate melting temperature, but all of them produce similar results: longer polymers require more thermal energy to melt. Hence, quick cooling from higher (say, from 95C thermocycler can cool in 10-12 sec) to RT/4C will favor re-annealing of circular ...


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As with all serious scientific result GWAS results need to validated by others. In this case it think is extremely important because these studies link mutations to diseases or in more general given genotypes to phenotypes, thus pointing out possible causes. So validating these results with the use of independent "samples" is indeed crucial. But as I said ...


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This seems to be a standard procedure knockout and complementation rescue experiment. Breed 2 can be produced from Breed 3 (assuming the Caspase 9 gene indeed causes cancer when it is not expressed). Firstly, knockout Caspase 9 from a wild type, creating Breed 3. Verify that the cancer phenotype is shown and is statistically significant. Then, ...


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Your question is basically a matter of defining brain plasticity or more broader, neuroplasticity. According to a well-cited paper in Brain (Cramer et al., 2011) neuroplasticity is defined as: [...] the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Hence, the term can ...



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