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A simple way to know if milk contains any bacterial contaminations is to take ~5 ml of the milk and add a couple of drops of methylene blue to it. If the milk is sterile, it will stay blue. If any bacteria are present they tend to take up the dye, leaving the sample colourless after ~1 hour. A more extensive way would be to plate 3-5 dilutions of the milk ...


you are correct that these grapes have raphides. After doing some research, I found out that the grape raphides are twinned crystals. Raphides can cause much irritation for many herbivores (therefore, it is a protection mechanism) but less so for humans. In grapes, however, the irritation is much less than other raphide-containing species. This probably has ...

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