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13

It looks to me (although I'd want to use a microscope to check) like the black dots are xylem. When you cut the fruit, you've severed the xylem and also exposed the flat surface. Three main things have then happened: The increased surface area has led to the 'fleshy' part of the fruit contracting as the cells dehydrate. The stiffer, lignified xylem tubes ...


8

They are basically conjoined apples which share a common stalk. They are rare but do happen. Here is an article of one discovered in a backyard. conjoined apple discovered in a store (reference) It apparently happens because of bad weather conditions, stress and insect damage. Fused fruits are also found in the case of cherries, watermelons, peaches ...


8

Pumpkins, squashes in general, grow on vines, while apples grow on trees. Vines are fast growing and trees are not. Zucchini can be quite large; cucumbers, too. Pears, plums, peaches and other tree fruits do have a reduced variation in fruit size. While I do not know the answer to your question, my background in plant biology tells me that this is an ...


7

To answer your question of what the gas is, how about the glowing splint test for oxygen! I guess it might work with a recently snuffed out match too. Cut a plug in the the pepper but leave it in place until you have the glowing match ready, then quickly open the plug and hold the match into the opening. It should relight if it is oxygen and you may hear a ...


7

I'm guessing that what they mean by 'maximize nutrition' for digestion is that they are assuming that the cells are broken open. This would make the co-factors we call vitamins, protein and sugars freely available to the digestive system and more easily absorbed. I think it is a marketing literature claim, though the blender may have some valid ...


6

The reason for this is the oxidation of phenol residues in the banana (for example in the yellow color) which get oxidized by the enzyme Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) to melanins. The scheme (the image is from this website on food browning) looks like this (you can of course also use more complicated substrates): For further information, see these references: ...


6

Here is a website that presents very accuerately the tree of life: tolweb.org/tree Yes, they have a common ancestor just like any other living things! How closely related are they? Both species are: Eukaryotes (cells with a nucleus) Archaeplastidae (plants) Angiosperms (flowering plants) Then, they split their way! Here is the tolweb.org page that ...


5

A true fruit is a ripened ovary that usually starts ripening when it is fertilized. And vegetable is any vegetative part of the plant which is edible and contains stored food probably in the form of starch. These definitions are not exact as there are a lot of fruits which are fruits but do not strictly follow the given definition. See Syconus, Composite ...


2

Cellulose is one of the most common sources of fiber in the nutritional sense. Because oranges are plants, their cells have cell walls, made out of cellulose, so some of the fiber in an orange is surrounding each individual cell. Both vascular cells and pith cells tend to have particularly thick cell walls, so they are probably higher in fiber (this article ...


2

Bigger pumpkins have more seeds than smaller pumpkins. When they get ideal nutrition the plant tries to make as many seeds as it can to take advantage of the windfall. Many of these vines with big fruit potential grow in compost and rotting material. So they are more opportunistic a pumpkin seed "in the wild" could land in a barren area or in a heap of ...


2

Banana skin consists of plant cells and cellular tissue. This tissue contains phenolic compounds. On getting old, the cell membranes of the banana get weak. When the membranes weaken, the phenolic compounds mix with polyphenol oxidase (an enzyme present in the cells cytoplasm). As a result of this interaction, the phelonic compounds oxidize and produce a ...


1

This is specific to navel oranges, which have a conjoined twin fruit. This blog gives an account of this.


1

I suspect the answer to this, is that in looking at agricultural fruits you are looking at plants that have been the subject of artificial selection, and the tree vs vine thing is a practical limit, but not the driving factor... for instance a jack fruit grows on tree and is watermelon sized... I think if you look at something like a pumpkin, you will ...



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