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16

Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


15

It's a fascinating topic! While most of the bacteria known to colonize babies comes from the vaginal tract during birth and then later, through breastfeeding, although there is evidence to suggest that microbial colonization may begin before birth. Regarding what these bacteria are, our microbiomes are composed of probably hundreds of species of bacteria ...


11

Goblet cells. These are specialized epithelial cells whose job it is to produce mucins. Mucous role is not only important in protecting the epithelium of the digestive tract from HCl, it is also a very important substance in the innate immune system, acting as a barrier defense to trap pathogens and/or prevent them from breaching the epithelium and gaining ...


7

Article: How influenza virus infection might lead to gastrointestinal symptoms Source study: Respiratory influenza virus infection induces intestinal immune injury via microbiota-mediated Th17 cell-dependent inflammation. The idea is that Influenza virus infection originates in the respiratory tract. In response, the body produces these CCR9+CD4+ Th cells ...


6

If you have no medical background at all, you will need a general text that teaches more than just digestive physiology. That is because you need to understand the function of other systems that have an influence over the digestive system (for example, the peripheral nervous system). Here are a few good general references to get you started: Physiology by ...


6

This is a bit hard because the usual composition statements are a combination of different types of molecules. Most of faeces are, by dry weight, bacteria (30%), undigested food and fiber (30%), fat (10%-20%), inorganic matter( 10-20%), other protein(2-3%). (reference) As you can see the bacterial portion contains proteins (amino acids) and other types of ...


5

The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


4

E. coli is mostly harmless; only a few strains are harmful. I don't believe the route by which gut biota is established has been entirely established for any species but, for example, koala feed their faeces to their offspring to help them establish biota capable of digesting eucalyptus. It seems that a small proportion of ingested bacteria somehow survive ...


4

From studies, lactic acid bacteria were found to be more resistant to GP (garlic powder) compared to the clostridial members of the gut microbiota. While for most bacteria the antimicrobial effect was transient, the lactobacilli showed a degree of resistance to garlic, indicating that its consumption may favour the growth of these beneficial ...


3

Our stomachs are lined with a special mucal layer which protects the organ from its own secretions. People with stomach ulcers have a hole in this layer, allowing the acid to get to the skin underneath. HCl is present in our stomach to aid digestion - especially with dismantaling the bolus (food) coming from the oesophagus. The HCl separates the larger bolus ...


3

Certain intestinal diseases have symptoms that appear concurrently in other systems of the body, but the bowel diseases themselves are not extraintestinal. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The most common manifestations involve the musculoskeletal and dermatologic ...


2

They are two different mechanisms. Opium is arguably one of the oldest herbal medicines, being used as analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal drug for thousands of years. These effects mirror the actions of the endogenous opioid system and are mediated by the principal μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. In the gut, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, β-endorphin ...


2

I have divided this answer into a section on horse and rabbit. While there are many other hindgut fermenters, these species are good illustrations of different ways hindgut fermenters can digest and absorb nutrients from their food. Horse As you know, absorption of "nutrients" occurs along the intestines, but at varying degrees at different sites. Most ...


2

This is called achalasia. According to UpToDate, the mechanism for this diseases are generally unknown. What is known, however, is that the esophagus has a neural system called the myenteric plexus and if these ganglion cells in the esophagus are damaged in any way (e.g. physically, followed by Wallerian degeneration, or the primary process of degeneration ...


2

Simply, it's because of the mucous layer around the stomach, that prevents the strong acid, Hcl to hurt our stomach. Not only this, if there were no mucous, the Hcl would digest the protein present in the epithelial cells, so the stomach itself would get digested. So the main protagonist here is the mucous layer.


1

First of all, diarrhea is a symptom, generally defined as passing large amount of loose stool. Diarrhea has countless causes, which include gastroenteritis and food poisoning (although not all types of gastroenteritis or food poisoning cause diarrhea). Now the other two terms. Strictly speaking gastroenteritis refers to the inflammation of ...


1

I believe in small intestine peristalsis is sometimes counted as mechanical digestion as the food is moved along the digestive tract. Chemical digestion occurs with enzymes secreted from the pancreas. https://www.smartlivingnetwork.com/digestive/b/mechanical-and-chemical-digestion/ - source


1

I'd suggest reading wiki first. Autonomic nervous system, the one that regulates breathing rate, heart rate and other physiological processes as a function of circadian time, regulates secretion of gastric acid. Vagus nerve, part of parasympathetic nervous system (the one responsible for "rest and digest" part of behavior, opposite to sympathetic "fight or ...


1

The appendix is a type of true diverticulum of the colon, although it is one that is present in everyone (unless a surgeon has removed it). There are bacteria in the gut from the mouth all the way down to the anus, and the numbers and types of bacteria change along the length of the intestinal tract. A recent review from J. Ridlon published in the Journal of ...



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