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Delivering siRNA in vivo is a difficult prospect, but has been overcome in research environments and several commercial in vivo solutions are on the market see examples from Life Technologies here. The bigger problems come from potential off-target effects. siRNA tend to be double stranded and both the 'guide' and 'passenger' strand can occasionally target ...


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You can fairly easily substitute peptides (short proteins) from the outside of the body, but you have to supply them by injection. They don't survive the low pH of the stomach unless you encapsulate them into an acid-resistant matrix. Short peptides are often very local and short acting, present only during specific times of the embryonic development (for ...


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The first differentiation in human embryogenesis is from early blastomeres into trophoblast, which forms the outer layer of the blastocyst, and inner cell mass (ICM). It may be unsurprising then that cells on the inside of the 8-16 cell stage morula differentiate into ICM whereas those on the outside differentiate into trophoblast. However it is currently ...


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I concur with @Bez but wish to elaborate on the meaning of 'conserved'. It is generally used in the context of evolution. A conserved characteristic or gene or protein means that it has 'survived' a long time without being altered. As @Bez mentions, certain parts of the protein machinery in eukaryotes is very different from prokaryotes, the latter being ...


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Non-coding transcripts can be as small as 10-15 nucleotides. Once the RNA polymerase initiates, the DNA is melted and the transcription bubble forms. This region is about 10 nucleotides long. But if you are asking the limit of mRNA length, then the answer is different. First of all, to get a protein, the ribosomes have to translate the transcript. To do ...


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Wobble pairing is just a phenomenon and not a hard and fast rule. There are some justifications for why it should exist and that is why it is still called a hypothesis. And this statement is not true:"the base on the third position of the codon and that on the anticodon need not be complementary". The anticodon residue corresponding to the third residue of ...



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