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Why cells differentiate or specialize is an ephemeral question. I'll make an attempt to answer--the more specialized cells an organism has, the better equipped that organism is to function. In a given organism, differentiation after n divisions or after t time during development is due to changes that are both intrinsic (genetic) or extrinsic ...


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Glybera doesn't target all cells, and doesn't target fat processing cells. Glybera is adeno-associated virus 1, which normally infects skeletal muscles. Glybera is delivered by intramuscular injection, so the virus easily infects the muscle tissue. The infected muscle cells produce a variant of lipoprotein lipase that has better activity than normal LPL and ...


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During Endochondral ossification chondrocytes in the plate are rapidly dividing, newer daughter cells stack facing the epiphysis while the older cells are pushed towards the diaphysis. As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new bone. In puberty increasing levels of estrogen, in both females and males, leads to ...


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Yes. Dewing et al. (20030 found that gene expression in mouse brains differs between male and female mice about 10.5 days after the mice had sex. This occurs before hormonal contributions to brain development. They identified about 35 genes that were appeared to show preferential expression in the female brain and another 16 that appeared to be show ...



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