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Consider two different genes (call them two different loci, if you like). Gene A where + is a wild-type, functional copy of the gene, and a is a mutant, loss-of-function copy of the gene. Gene B where + is a wild-type functional copy of the gene and b is a mutant, loss-of-function copy of the gene. An individual with this genotype: +/+; +/+ Will be ...


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The definition of "gene", according to The American Heritage Science Dictionary is: "A segment of DNA, occupying a specific place on a chromosome, that is the basic unit of heredity. Genes act by directing the production of RNA, which determines the synthesis of proteins that make up living matter and are the catalysts of all cellular processes. The ...


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You could introduce multiple transgenes into your embryonic cell line before injecting into the blastocyst. That way you don't have to do it individually one by one and then breed them all together, which can take a lot of resources. This is especially necessary when your genes are really close together (genetic linkage) and hence would not breed in a ...


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Genetic variation can affect the levels of protein; consider a variant that reduces the amount of mRNA transcribed, this could have a profound effect on the amount of mRNA available to translate into a protein. Consider another variant that does not affect the abundance of the mRNA transcribed, but alters one of the many important sequences that are ...


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It depends on what type of data you have, really. There are methods developed solely for quantifying relative expression based on count data, such as using edgeR or limma-voom. You don't need to correct for gene length to estimate fold-changes of relative expression, what you need to do is normalise by library size first (and in the process obtain log2 ...


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Remi.b talked at great length in his answer about copy-number variation and the generation of new genes. However, I don't think he quite answered what I think is a pretty basic question: How many copies of any particular gene are there in (a human) genome? The answer to that question is also simple: two - one on the chromosome from the mother, and one ...


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Cell cycle Talking about physical copies of gene, we would indeed have at least 1 copy during the haploid phase, 2 copies during the diploid phase and 4 copies during the mitosis (and during the first phase of the meiosis). Of course, species having mitosis during the haploid phase would have 2 copies of the gene during the mitosis. I am not talking about ...


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The short answer is yes, other animals can experience dwarfism, including dogs, although it may not be what you are expecting. Dogs are apparently particularly susceptible but they often are a special case. We've so heavily bred dogs for whatever traits we desire, so now entire breeds are affected by dwarfism, such as dachshunds and corgis. The reality is ...



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