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A constitutive or "housekeeping" enzyme is usually defined as an enzyme whose expression level (amount of protein) is always constant, independent of any environmental factors. Hence, regulation of constitutive enzymes must be post-translational, for example allosteric regulation of the enzymatic activity by substrates or products. Note that constitutive ...


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There are several mechanisms by which the expression of a gene can be completely turned off. Certain network architectures can ensure foolproof repression (for e.g. by using multiple repressors parallely or additional epigenetic silencing mechanisms). Bistable switches can also ensure robustness of expression in a way that small fluctuations in the ...



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