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Take a look at the biomaRt package. This package allows you to access some databases in R directly. Quote from the user's guide: The package enables retrieval of large amounts of data in a uniform way without the need to know the underlying database schemas or write complex SQL queries. Examples of BioMart databases are Ensembl, Uniprot and ...


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Your understanding of DNA is correct. DNA is a heteropolymer of monomers called nucleotides and each nucleotide is made up of a sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate and a "base" (A, T, G, C). As you already know, DNA is organized as a double helix with the Watson-Crick pairing rules. A chromosome contains a single DNA double helix. Many organisms have multiple ...


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You are absolutely correct that many traits are not "digital", but "analog". In genetics, these are usually called quantitative traits. Such traits generally do not follow Mendel's laws of inheritance, but are said to have "complex inheritance". Most traits (phenotypes) in biology at the level of whole organisms probably have complex genetics; height is a ...



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