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6

Relatedness of ants within a colony vary from species to species (as different species may use different mating systems) and from colony to colony. I will consider a basic (simplified) model of a honeybee colony and describe it a little bit to try to address your question. Simplified Model of a ant colony In general, a queen can have several mates. The ...


6

This is not an area I know well, but I'm familiar with a couple of studies that have tried to estimate the heritable (genetic) component of homosexuality in humans. A review paper by Rice et al (2012) points out that: Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins ...


4

I recommend to filter using transcript_type value from description column. You need only proteine_coding genes. Now you have extra ~10K unprocessed pseudogenes, ~5K antisense genes, ~4K miRNA, ~7K lincRNA and more than thirty other categories of unprocessed pseudogenic stuff. As far as I know current release for GRCh37 is 19th version, not 18.


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The methods that come immediately to mind are mostly related to next-generation sequencing. You can do deep sequencing on your sample, which is just increasing the coverage as much as possible to find rare events. You can do RNA-seq to look at the transcriptome, ChIP-seq to look at chromatin modifications, and single-cell sequencing (a form of deep ...


4

Concise Answer The 5′-UTR region of a eukaryotic mRNA is derived from the RNA transcript of the region of a gene between the transcription start site and the DNA corresponding to the translational initiation codon. It differs from that region of the initial transcript in most cases by having a modified guanosine nucleotide added at the 5′-end in a ‘cap’ ...


3

Short answer The 5' UTR on the mRNA includes sequence from the Transcriptional Start Site (TSS) to the first exon. Promoters are usually associated with a corresponding TSS. Longer answer In defining a UTR we must consider where transcription begins. Strictly speaking transcription begins at the Transcriptional Start Site (TSS). A useful website for exact ...


3

I do know that the TED Ed episode linked (at 3:50) actually says that 500 million people have myopia or hyperopia, which is 1000 times what the question says, and which seems more reasonable for a world of 7.4 billion people (skewed towards the young).


3

One of my potential grandfathers had blue eyes, so if it had been him my mother would have received two blue eyes genes and have blue eyes. No, this does not necessarily follow, because eye color genetics are more complicated than just one dominant-recessive gene. See, for example this article from a someone at Stanford University on How Blue Eyed ...


2

This is a deceptively and badly worded trick question. Your confusion is because it starts with a mention of RNA polymerase, which transcribes DNA into mRNA, but asks about the protein, which is produced by the translation of the mRNA on ribosomes. The first step in solving the problem is asking what is the sequence of the mRNA produced by the ...


2

The primary product of protein coding genes are mRNAs. When we talk about measuring gene expression we want to assay the steady-state levels of a specific mRNA within a cell. This is usually accomplished by starting with a large number of cells and harvesting all of the mRNAs from all of the cells. One way to measure the expression level of just one ...


2

If a piece of DNA were to be transcribed on both strands, at the same time, the transcription complexes would collide and inhibit each other, like steric hindrance. If you could overcome this interference and synthesize primary transcripts from both strands, it follows that the two RNAs would hybridize to each other and form complementary RNA-RNA hybrids. ...


2

You are trying to work out who your mother's father was. You know that your mother's mother had blue eyes, but your mother had brown eyes. You also have blue eyes. You make an assumption that eye colour is a Mendelian trait, with a dominant brown allele (A) and recessive blue allele (a) such that AA and Aa are brown-eyed, while aa gives blue eyes. To have ...


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Both. You should note that activation in this case involves recruitment of RNA polymerase to drive transcription, and that this process is irrelevant to DNA replication. B in the figure shows amino acid contacts (from CAP) with specific nucleotides in the DNA duplex. DNA binding by CAP: structure of the CAP-DNA complex. (A) Structure of CAP in complex with ...


2

This may have to do with the fact that the cells require 'housekeeping genes', which are typically constitutive genes that are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions. Housekeeping and other essential genes are distributed uniformly across different chromosomes thereby making any chromosome indispensable. ...


2

It has been shown in Drosophila that cross-sex heritability is low for lifespan, where within-sex heritability was three times greater than cross-sex heritability. This means that, sons more closely resemble their fathers and daughters more closely resemble their mothers. This could be considered one such example, if you consider the trait to be a ...


2

In general, point mutations are introduced in the proteins of interest during directed evolution. These can be specific mutations in the active site of an enzyme if you would like to change its specificity towards a new substrate, for example. The point mutations can be introduced with primers when you amplify your gene of interest. However, if you don't ...


2

Meiosis does not determine sexual form. Eukaryotes use meiosis and fertilization to recombine genes to form new combinations. Meiosis does produce haploid cells from diploid cells, but that has nothing much to do with the sexual forms involved. In the case of the algal genus Chara, the organism's life cycle is entirely haploid except for the ...


1

The UTR is the region of the transcript upstream of the starting methionine. The promotor is not itself transcribed.


1

The term polymorphism is broad and can have different meanings. Here are your definitions Multiple Allelism: The existence of more than two alleles of the same gene within a population. Polymorphism: the occurrence of more than two distinct phenotypes of a trait in a population. Considering your definitions only, then multiple allelism has to do ...


1

Another source of developmental noise is due to diffusion. Diffusive processes are stochastic and induce noise in morphogen gradients and results in the concentration as being "jagged". Recent results have directly measured the noise in morphogen gradients of the developing zebrafish. In fact, when you think about the low copy numbers of transcription ...


1

I am just repeating @emhart answer but wanted to highlight the semantic. There are several ways an individual can inherit from its parents. Genetics Through transmission of DNA. An acquired trait cannot affect DNA sequence directly and therefore cannot be inherited genetically by the offspring (this sentence is the answer to your question). Note ...


1

question looks like it's been dormant for a while, but i think there's some discussion to be had here- I would argue that in many (most?) of the model organisms, power would be much greater than humans. Frequently (worms, mice, plants, yeast) you can work with basically isogenic inbred lines. I would argue this is much more important than long haplotypes: ...



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