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Your germline DNA remains the same no matter what you do in the growth process (The DNA of a child is the same as the DNA of the adult). What does change is the expression of the DNA (transcriptomic profile), other regulatory factors (Epigenetic modifications), alternative forms of the same DNA expressed differently (splice site variations and alternative ...


4

I don't understand your calculations and I don't understand why you're trying to use Bayes formula. I don't know the $\frac{1-p}{2-p}$ formula and I don't understand what it is supposed to calculate. It seems to me that you're overthinking a simple problem. We don't have all the information and need to make a bunch of assumptions but if I understand the ...


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For transcription, the cell uses different signals from start- or stop- codons to determine the start and end of a transcript (see this wiki page). Codons (and hence frameshifts) are only relevant at translation of the mRNA to protein. Frameshift mutations occur in coding sequence, so the promoter and termination signals for transcription are unaffected. ...


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First of all, for a frame shift mutation to occur nucleotides (not amino acids) are either deleted or inserted into the sequence. Read about details on this wiki page. Here's an image about frame shifts. On panel A a new stop codon is formed (TAG is trasncribed to UAG that is serves as stop codon during translation) thus the result is an abnormally short ...


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You can do with a single gRNA. All that CRISPR-Cas, ZFN or TALEN systems do is to introduce a double strand break at a specific site. The DNA gets repaired via two mechanisms — non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ is error prone and it may introduce indels that can compromise with gene function (frameshifts etc). While HR ...


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According to Merriam Webster, an exogeneous gene is defined as " introduced from or produced outside the organism or system; specifically : not synthesized within the organism or system—compare endogenous". I believe they refer to the tetO::tdTomato transgene as an exogeneous, or not originating from the species of study


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Genetic diversity is indeed very important for many reasons, most notably resistance to diseases. The Gros Michel banana used to be the most cultivated banana, until it was almost completely wiped out by a fungal disease due to lack of resistance in the genetically homogenous cultivars grown in plantations. As a result, it had to be replaced by the ...


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Syntenic blocks contain the same genes of order between chromosomes of different species. The figure above shows (left to right) syntenic block shared between human chromosome 17 and corresponding chromosomes in three other mammals (horse, pig and chimpanzee). And as expected, the more distinct the species (such as pig and horse) the more disarranged the ...


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You are a bit confused with your terms here. Remember, when you are talking about natural regulation of a transcriptome, you can control it at the level of the genome, transcriptome and the epigenome. The Repressor protein is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. ...


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Option 1: You can use the SNP database, to see if it has (and it usually is) characterised before: The tutorial is here (http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/BioMed_Bioinformatics_NCBIGene_SNP.shtml) Option 2: is to use a go to character function in a few text editors. If you are on windows, You can do it in Notepad++ ...


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I think recessive refuge is the term you are looking for (this is the best link I could find, sorry: https://quizlet.com/4176029/bio-experiment-1-and-2-flash-cards/)


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There seems to be quite an amount of resources to help OP. Addgene has a page on topic with list and description of common promoters usable in variety of organisms: Plasmids 101: The Promoter Region Experimental biophysics textbook mentions some useful promoters as well, or this review. Surprisingly, there has been some quantitative analysis of promoter ...


2

No, it wouldn't. In order to understand why, you must understand that Genes are translated independently of one another. The ribosome starts translating at a start codon (ATG) and stops at one of the three stop codons (TAG,TAA and TGA). Whether another gene has a frameshift mutation or not, does not affect the current gene in any way. The ribosome will ...


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I agree that the question is unclear. I personally don't know the example of the labrador and would need a reference (or a description from you) to talk about this specific case study. The following tables are displaying all possible kind of interactions (in a haploid and in a diploid) of two bi-allelic loci. Hope that helps! source (wiki) For Haploids ...


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All the mitochondria of an individual are originating from the mother. This means that if the mother is afflicted by a mitochondrial disease, the offspring will also be affected. This is why the three parent model is being considered in some cases (1). (1) Pritchard, C. (2014, September 1). The girl with three biological parents. BBC News. From ...


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These describe mutations (SNPs) in introns. IVS stands for intervening sequence (which is another term for intron). The number following IVS specifies which intron the mutation occurs in (intron 1 follows exon 1, etc). The +n or -n, where n is an integer, gives the location of the nucleotide. +n counts 3' from the preceding exon whereas -n counts 5' ...


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This is conceptually similar to our discussion about QTLs, except that I believe that in this example the authors had already narrowed down (which means crudely mapped, as opposed to finely mapped) the actual genetic region by some previous experiments. Based on that prior work they may have already deduced that they were seeking a single gene (or a ...


1

I'll try to help clarify the picture, but given that I have not read the paper, I am not too clear on the context. A. IT compares the DNA of the stickleback (the SALR), medaka, and zebrafish. If there is a red peak, there is relatively high sequence identity (or similarity), indicating similarity (in evolutionary ancestry in this context?). Gray is ...


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When we say that something is a genetic marker we mean that we can establish its linkage to a chromosome AND that we have some way of discerning, or detecting, how the marker has segregated after meiotic recombination (this definition is only valid for diploid species that undergo sexual reproduction). So, for example, in the fruit fly, Drosphila ...


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You should really study the basics before asking specifics about a particular protein. I am not voting to close the question, however. DNA catalyses the formation mRNA (transcription) which in turn catalyses the formation of a polypeptide (translation); RNA polymerase and ribosome are co-catalysts respectively. A functional protein may have many ...


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If you have access to a laboratory (or at the very least a centrifuge and pipettes) and some laboratory experience you can extract the DNA from the cells which would be much easier to store. There are a number of commercial DNA extraction kits available that are easy to find on google and order online. I don't want to promote any particular brand but I've ...


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Some background: The new work involved misexpression of the Drosophila Ubx protein in the presumptive thorax of transgenic fruitfly embryos. Limb development was suppressed because of repression of Dll. By contrast, the misexpression of onychophoran and crustacean Ubx proteins did not interfere with Dll expression and the formation of thoracic limbs. ...



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