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1

The first resource I would look at would be the TCGA publication on NSCLC which can be found at this location: http://bit.ly/1J4JG9x. The first figure shows the most frequently mutated genes. TP53 rises to the top as most frequently mutated gene in the cohort studied, however, one also sees on the list KEAP1, NF1, ARID1A, SMARCA4, RB1, and CDKN2 as commonly ...


3

As far as I know, speciation in sexually-reproducing organisms is primarily identified as the inability to produce viable offspring. In other words, it is not so much determined at the molecular level, but at the organismal level. As @Augurar rightfully asked - the mating procedure does not work in asexually reproducing species. In this case molecular ...


10

Short answer The biological master clock is neurologically and genetically hardwired. The biological clock is not affected by learning. Instead, it is constantly entrained mainly by daylight. Background The biological clock is hardwired in the human body and can be traced back to the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus ...


1

Instead of dividing mutations into two classes, dominant vs. recessive, consider categorizing them into classes based on how the mutation affects the gene--or the gene product. This yields loss-of-function (lf) alleles, that reduce the activity of the gene, or its product, and gain-of-function (gf) alleles that act as if they somehow increase the activity ...


-1

Harmful alleles can be both recessive or dominant. They do not tend to be more recessive or more dominant. But, you must look at it from a population genetics point of view. When a allele is dominant, it tends to be a highly selected for trait, an analogy of this would be black eyes are a dominant trait compared to blue eyes or green eyes, which is why you ...


2

"Cos" is the abbreviation of "cohesive end site". This is a speciality of the lambda phage which has to be linearized to fit into the phages head, but circularizes in the host cell. To achieve this, it has the cohesive (or sticky) sites at each end. See here and also the publication by Allan Campbell on "Bacteriophages".


0

Cos is for "cohesive," as in these sites rather easily recircularize the linear phage DNA through complementary base-pairing (they're sticky ends, generally G-C rich). See Wikipedia.


1

The 12 bp overlapping sticky ends at the termini of pure lambda DNA are generated during DNA packaging. Another term for this complementary base-pairing is "cohesive" and so cos is an abbreviation of that term. I believe it was italicized because it could also be mapped genetically. Scott Emmons is credited with coining this term (and using it first) when he ...


0

Masked allele is a term that is sometimes used for recessive alleles, and it should be suitable to the situation you describe. A common phrasing could be; "The wild type allele is masking the expression of the deleterious allele X.". For your particular example you could use: Deleterious mutations on the Y chromosome are more easily purged since they ...


2

I think recessive refuge is the term you are looking for (this is the best link I could find, sorry: https://quizlet.com/4176029/bio-experiment-1-and-2-flash-cards/)


1

You should really study the basics before asking specifics about a particular protein. I am not voting to close the question, however. DNA catalyses the formation mRNA (transcription) which in turn catalyses the formation of a polypeptide (translation); RNA polymerase and ribosome are co-catalysts respectively. A functional protein may have many ...


0

It looks like I could solve the question. My understanding is as follows. Let $(X_1,Y_1)$, $(X_2,Y_2)$ (corresponds to $i,j$ and $k,l$ in the question) be the genotypes of two individuals at some location. We assume that neither individual is in-bred. In this case define, \begin{align*} \Delta_7&= \text{Pr}(\text{Both alleles $\{X_1,Y_1\}$ and ...


1

I agree that the question is unclear. I personally don't know the example of the labrador and would need a reference (or a description from you) to talk about this specific case study. The following tables are displaying all possible kind of interactions (in a haploid and in a diploid) of two bi-allelic loci. Hope that helps! source (wiki) For Haploids ...


2

There seems to be quite an amount of resources to help OP. Addgene has a page on topic with list and description of common promoters usable in variety of organisms: Plasmids 101: The Promoter Region Experimental biophysics textbook mentions some useful promoters as well, or this review. Surprisingly, there has been some quantitative analysis of promoter ...


-1

@MadScientist: Certain functions require every single one of these 20 amino acids. However, in isolated cases a selected subset of amino acids might very well lead to an active protein.


0

Just reading the abstract, these enzymes recognize RNA:DNA heteroduplexes. These are unlikely to be encountered in vivo.


0

You could store DNA diluted in water at -20C for a very long time. The only problem with at home storage would be the type of freezer most households have. These come standard with defrosting feature, which thaws up the freezer to remove the ice accumulation... This would affect the stability of the DNA at long term scale. Having a styrofoam box to protect ...


1

If you have access to a laboratory (or at the very least a centrifuge and pipettes) and some laboratory experience you can extract the DNA from the cells which would be much easier to store. There are a number of commercial DNA extraction kits available that are easy to find on google and order online. I don't want to promote any particular brand but I've ...


1

All the mitochondria of an individual are originating from the mother. This means that if the mother is afflicted by a mitochondrial disease, the offspring will also be affected. This is why the three parent model is being considered in some cases (1). (1) Pritchard, C. (2014, September 1). The girl with three biological parents. BBC News. From ...


1

Some background: The new work involved misexpression of the Drosophila Ubx protein in the presumptive thorax of transgenic fruitfly embryos. Limb development was suppressed because of repression of Dll. By contrast, the misexpression of onychophoran and crustacean Ubx proteins did not interfere with Dll expression and the formation of thoracic limbs. ...


1

These describe mutations (SNPs) in introns. IVS stands for intervening sequence (which is another term for intron). The number following IVS specifies which intron the mutation occurs in (intron 1 follows exon 1, etc). The +n or -n, where n is an integer, gives the location of the nucleotide. +n counts 3' from the preceding exon whereas -n counts 5' ...


2

No, it wouldn't. In order to understand why, you must understand that Genes are translated independently of one another. The ribosome starts translating at a start codon (ATG) and stops at one of the three stop codons (TAG,TAA and TGA). Whether another gene has a frameshift mutation or not, does not affect the current gene in any way. The ribosome will ...


3

For transcription, the cell uses different signals from start- or stop- codons to determine the start and end of a transcript (see this wiki page). Codons (and hence frameshifts) are only relevant at translation of the mRNA to protein. Frameshift mutations occur in coding sequence, so the promoter and termination signals for transcription are unaffected. ...


3

First of all, for a frame shift mutation to occur nucleotides (not amino acids) are either deleted or inserted into the sequence. Read about details on this wiki page. Here's an image about frame shifts. On panel A a new stop codon is formed (TAG is trasncribed to UAG that is serves as stop codon during translation) thus the result is an abnormally short ...


0

Often, they do fuse together but the chromosome pairing is not precise enough to guarantee faithful cell division without loss of genetic material. Consider for example a simple inversion of one large part of a chromosome. In a closely related species that does not have this inversion, either the inverted part pairs or the non-inverted ends pair, but never ...


2

You are a bit confused with your terms here. Remember, when you are talking about natural regulation of a transcriptome, you can control it at the level of the genome, transcriptome and the epigenome. The Repressor protein is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. ...


0

To achieve whole genome alignment between a genome as large as a human, and as small as an archea organism, is possible, but in the end, you'll have to strain your eyes to see patterns. The archea genome is about 1-5 million bp long, whereas the human genome is about 3.3 billion bp long (that's a thousand times too large). In practice what this means is ...


2

Option 1: You can use the SNP database, to see if it has (and it usually is) characterised before: The tutorial is here (http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/BioMed_Bioinformatics_NCBIGene_SNP.shtml) Option 2: is to use a go to character function in a few text editors. If you are on windows, You can do it in Notepad++ ...


4

I don't understand your calculations and I don't understand why you're trying to use Bayes formula. I don't know the $\frac{1-p}{2-p}$ formula and I don't understand what it is supposed to calculate. It seems to me that you're overthinking a simple problem. We don't have all the information and need to make a bunch of assumptions but if I understand the ...


3

You can do with a single gRNA. All that CRISPR-Cas, ZFN or TALEN systems do is to introduce a double strand break at a specific site. The DNA gets repaired via two mechanisms — non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ is error prone and it may introduce indels that can compromise with gene function (frameshifts etc). While HR ...


2

Syntenic blocks contain the same genes of order between chromosomes of different species. The figure above shows (left to right) syntenic block shared between human chromosome 17 and corresponding chromosomes in three other mammals (horse, pig and chimpanzee). And as expected, the more distinct the species (such as pig and horse) the more disarranged the ...


4

Your germline DNA remains the same no matter what you do in the growth process (The DNA of a child is the same as the DNA of the adult). What does change is the expression of the DNA (transcriptomic profile), other regulatory factors (Epigenetic modifications), alternative forms of the same DNA expressed differently (splice site variations and alternative ...



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