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High-throughput, as indicated by canadianer in their comments refers to amount of data that is processed by the system. Though the answer by CactusWoman would be correct for the case of DNA sequencing, high-throughput is not really confined to that domain. Any high-throughput technique tries to measure several variables simultaneously. The examples include, ...


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High-throughput sequencing specifically refers to sequencing techniques like Illumina that allow you to sequence massive amounts of DNA at once (hundreds of thousands of strands), as opposed to older techniques such as cloning the cDNA in plasmids, followed by sequencing.


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This question can't be answered with a simple yes/no, but I would say that the analogy of DNA being the "code" used by cells is a reasonable one, if taken with a number of other considerations. DNA function When Watson and Crick first described the structure of DNA (being a double-stranded sequence of the nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and ...


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First of all, the $\mu$ is not expected time for a mutation to occur and get fixed; it is the rate at which mutations are fixed in the population. The basic result states that if neutral mutations arise at a locus at rate $\mu$ within individuals, mutations at this locus will be fixed in the population at rate $\mu$ as well. The expected time for a given ...


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"Cloning a gene" also just means making tons of copies of it, like in PCR, so you can sequence it


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You are on the right track, but you have to keep in mind there are multiple ways to have two dark and one child in a group of three. You have to add the probabilities of each unique outcome that results in two dark and one light child. So, the probability is (1/4) x (3/4) x (3/4) PLUS (3/4) x (1/4) x (3/4) PLUS (3/4) x (3/4) x (1/4)


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I think you are misunderstanding "color" here. When applied to cats, it doesn't literally mean a color shade as used in color theory, but "coat color" which can in fact also be a "coat pattern". The cats above are two-colored, not three-colored. One color is white. The other color is what is called "tabby" in English and is a pattern of dark spots arranged ...


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They are not chosen, they represent an even half, a complete set of chromosomes. The entirity of a cells genes (found on the chromosomes) is called a genome. Somatic cells are the cells in our bodies that exclude sperm and egg. Sperm and egg are called germline cells. The billions of somatic cells in a homo sapien have the same 46 chromosomes. 23 ( ...


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As pointed out by aandreev, the greater the size of the insert relative to the flanks lower will be the recombination rate. This is because the donor DNA essentially becomes non-homologous. See the figures below:                 Figure1: Effect of insert size on recombination ...


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This is a test cross - a cross with a recessive pair of alleles and either a heterozygous or homozygous pair of dominant alleles( eg- Tt X tt or TT x tt respectively). These crosses are carried out to check the if genes are homozygous or not. In this the ratio is always 1:1. So don't worry. :) Be confident about your answer, because it is obvious that the ...


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It can actually on very rare occasions however, it is also highly problematic and generally creates deleterious mutations and can inactivate genes. Depending on the location of the cell and the cross-over within the genome, it can also contribute to the formation of cancer. For instance, in the case of retinoblastoma, if there is one mutated copy of RAS on ...


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During mitosis both sister chromatids are identical si there would be no benefit to crossing over. During mieosis a person receives one chromosome from each parent which will encourage homologous recombination or crossing over to promote gebetic diversity.


2

There are many different types ('scales', you might say, and mechanisms) of mutation in the genome. Maybe your question was really about base mutations, but I want to add one interesting tangential thing (which also points out the importance of clarifying the term 'mutation'): Segmental Duplications - non-random genomic mutation There are mutations that ...


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In my view there is direct link between probability of recombination and size of the insert. Smaller inserts with larger flanks get incorporated easier. That I understand from reviewing studies based on Cas9/CRISPRs system. Same should stand for HR-mutagenesis in yeast. So, short answer will be: shorter inserts are more efficient. However, I couldn't find ...


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welcome to Biology.SE! can environmental factors play a role in the amount of mutations that occur? Yes! These environmental factors that increase the mutation rate are called mutagens. You will definitely want to have a look in the wikipedia article. You may also want to read the wikipedia page on mutagenesis Some chemicals increase the mutation ...


3

I use the term "X-inactivation" instead of "lyonization". Anyway, X-inactivation is a very specific process by which an entire X chromosome (or equivalent sex chromosome) in a female mammal is completely silenced. "Imprinting" is typically applied to single genes, wherein genes inherited from a specific parent are always epigenetically silenced. The genes ...


3

Before going into the trouble of reading a textbook on GMOs, ask yourself if you truly understand what the "controversy" is all about? I'll restrain the following comment to GMO crops (as I strongly feel it is in that area that the hysteria whipped up by a public that is poorly educated in science harms society the most). The public perception often seems ...


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DNA duplication (imagine, we PCR it) will net be enough. First of all, you also will have to duplicate and pack mitochondrial DNA into the cell. next, as been mentioned, epigenetic modification (methylation) and histone packing are crucial for proper development. And these markers should essentially replicate state of the host cell. My best guess is that ...


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The answer is no, and it is because sequence of the genome is not all information that is required for gene expression and development, there are also epigenetic factors. A lot of patterns of epigenetic marks, such as most of DNA methylation and some histone modification patterns, are set during parental germline development, and these marks are ...


4

I too had difficulty finding any textbooks or notes that focused solely on genetic engineering. However, after some rather intense looking, I did come across several textbooks that may be helpful. I wasn't sure how basic of a text you were looking for but I'm hoping college level is okay because that is all I have been able to find. The first book was An ...


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I guess, we are talking about mammals here (because in other organisms leveling up of expression on sex chromosomes happens differently: e.g. in flies females express both X chromosomes, while fly males express their single X at twice as high level). In embryo proper the decision of whether to inactivate maternal or paternal X seems to be at random. This ...


3

In BACK INJURIES IN THE YOUNG ATHLETE, a paper by three Harvard Medical School/Children's Hospital orthopedic surgeons in the Division of Sports Medicine, there is more than enough evidence that back pain is common in young athletes of both sexes: Back injuries in the young athlete are a significant phenomenon, estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of ...


1

The mechanism is straightforward: in Metaphase I of Meiosis, chromosomes line up in two lines, with homologous across from each other, which allows them to interact by crossing over. In Metaphase of Mitosis, the chromosomes are all lined up single file, so the homologous chromosomes cannot interact.


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Welcome to Biology.SE! Your question is very broad. Also, your post has the default of containing severals questions in it. Make sure in the future to restrict your post to only question, it will be much more likely that you receive a good answer then. I hope that I can give some indications about how to get some more knowledge in this answer. In this ...


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I don't think the book's reasoning is correct. There are about 3 billion base pairs in the human genome, but only ca 25.000 protein-coding genes. From the top of my head, I recall that each child has about 30 mutations. If that's in the total genome and if they were all point mutations and there's 4 options for the base pair, then we have $30$ mutations out ...


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There are multiple answers to this question depending on who you ask (meaning, what their field of expertise is). The biological dark matter from the wikipedia article in question seems to mean sequence from metagenomic samples which was not assigned to any of our commonly known domains of life. That might not necessarily mean that it does not belong to ...


0

Take a look at this article: http://phys.org/news/2014-01-scientists-biological-dark.html Is this the same "biological dark matter" you're asking about? If so, it sounds like what used to be called "junk DNA" or "non-coding DNA", which is what it was referred to as up until a few years ago when scientists discovered it is actually regulatory DNA, very ...


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The context of the term "non-allelic" is non-allelic recombinations which means recombinations between genes that are not exactly alleles but have enough sequence homology to permit recombination.


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My understanding of it got me to the point that non-allelic recessive means a single allele can show its effect in the complete absence of its partner; whether it is a dominant or recessive - as in the case if hemophilia. Because at the molecular level normally we define a recessive allele as that which cannot encode any enzyme. Help me to get through this. ...


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I think it's best to break this question up in to two parts: What mutations account for red hair and fair skin in humans How might these same mutations affect pain sensation MC1R variants & red hair The MC1R gene encodes a transmembrane receptor protein (belonging to a very common family of receptors), called melanocortin 1 receptor. It also has ...


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DNA Barcoding is a method or a protocol which, as you have already mentioned, uses genetic markers to identify species. The barcodes can be "scanned" using PCR. Now Real-Time PCR is just a quantitative version of PCR. You don't need that to look for qualitative aspects. However in a mixed sample you may be able to calculate percentage constitution of the ...


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You've done a pretty decent job of answering your own question, but there are a few things that can be elaborated on. The general convention is to use the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 (COI) gene for barcoding animals and chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) for plants. The three biggest reasons for selecting these genes are 1) their ...


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Senescent cells are cells that go into permanent cell cycle arrest. Although they may be metabolically active, they are not actively dividing. This may occur when cells in our bodies undergo damage from an extraneous or endogenous source. I understand that its role in cancer and aging is a great topic of study.


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The T7 promoter is encoded for by the genome of T7 bacteriophage. The T7 RNA polymerase is specific for the T7 promoter, and so in the presence of the T7 promoter the T7 RNA Polymerase will transcribe everything going 5'-3'. If your T7 promoters are flanking your gene of interest, you can expect copies of your coding portions either way the insert goes in. ...


1

I'd use a chi-squared test. You calculate what you expect to see if your hypothesis is true, and you take what you do see, and the chi-squared result tells you how likely it is that your results are different enough from what's expected to indicate that your hypothesis is incorrect.



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