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As someone who has dabbled in both biology and programming, I assume you are referring to the theoritical ability of functional programming to simulate organic behaviour from well defined input. From that point of view, our comprehension of the human cell behaviour is currently near stone age level. The astounding diversity of homeostatic and signaling ...


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The closest we have come to achieving this was probably when the J. Craig Venter institute made a synthetic bacteria. They produced the genome for the smallest simplest bacteria they could find and it still took a large team of researchers several years and a LOT of money. Building a plant would be exponentially more difficult. What complicates this is ...


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As Chris mentioned in his comment, 'printing' DNA from scratch (i.e. synthesizing a long strand de novo) is expensive and difficult. Unfortunately, the process of GMO creation is not as simple as assembling a beautiful DNA sequence on the computer, printing it, and then inserting it into a cell. Here's a related question about de novo sequencing. Plant ...


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Non-homologous end joining indeed induces errors in the affected sequence. But you have to keep in mind, that NHEJ is an emergency repair mechanism which involves a "repair or die" chance. If the chromosomal break is not repaired it is not unlikely that the cell will get into apoptosis, or, even worse, develops into a cancer cell. Introducing small errors is ...


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NHEJ is indeed error prone. It is called "non-homologous" because it does not use a "homologous" template from another sequence-matching piece of DNA to guide the repair. Homologous repairs avoid causing mutations because the similar string of DNA acts as a template so that the cell knows what letters to put into the gap. When there's no template, there's ...


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People can grow taller than their parents. Anecdotally: I'm 185 cm, my parents are 155 cm and 178 cm. Joakim Noah, an NBA basketball player is 211 cm, his dad was 193 cm and mother was 175 cm... how? Genetics and environment play a role in determining height. First of all, a more nutritious environment during development can lead to increased height, this ...


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Yes it is quite possible, recall nature vs nurture. I myself am slightly taller than both of my parents by about a head. As long as you have sufficient nutrition it should be quite possible. And what you said about gene activation skipping generations is quite true- it can indeed happen, and if the gene responsible for height is not expressed in the parents ...


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In principle, Meiosis is only the process in which the haploid egg or sperm are generated. Have a look at this figure, which shows Meiosis I and II (from the Wikipedia): During Meiosis I homologous recombination between homologous chromosomes can happen, the chromosomes are then distributed normally among the daughter cells. In Meiosis II the cells split ...


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Eye color is sex-linked. So a green-eyed male has genotype G- (only one X chromosome) for eye color and BB for fur color. The female has genotype GgBb. For the offspring to be female, 1/2 probability, to have green eyes 1/1 probability (G is dominant and it will receive the G from the father), and for gray fur 1/2 (1/2 chance it will receive b from the ...


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The male has a phenotype XGY BB, and the female, XGXg Bb. Thus the probability is 0.25.


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Grey hair is one of many age related traits. Other traits showing a positive correlation with age include Parkinson's, cancer, and Alzheimer's. There are two key theories as to why age-related disease & decline occurs. But the key message is just because something evolves, it doesn't mean it's advantageous. First of all is mutation accumulation (MA) ...


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During Endochondral ossification chondrocytes in the plate are rapidly dividing, newer daughter cells stack facing the epiphysis while the older cells are pushed towards the diaphysis. As the older chondrocytes degenerate, osteoblasts ossify the remains to form new bone. In puberty increasing levels of estrogen, in both females and males, leads to ...


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The chromosomes in your picture do have sister chromatids, they are just very close together. A chromosome needs to pass through replication before it can compact into the typical metaphase chromosome shape depicted above. When I prepare metaphase chromosomes, I usually see a mixture of chromosome sets where the chromatids are close together (like above) and ...


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First of all: We are not very different on the genetic level - the identity is somewhere around 99.6 to 99.9%. See here for details. If this wouldn't be like this, things like blood transfusions or organ transplants wouldn't work. To identify genes there are different routes. "In the old days" (meaning before the possibility of massive high throughput ...


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If you look into a certain population, you will find mutations (for example SNPs) in some ratio with the wild-type allele. When a mutation reaches fixation, it will be the only allele, reaching 100% penetrance in this population. See here for more information. In the context given I would interpret it in the way that a total of 464 SNPs were found, 430 of ...


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As canalization is defined in your question (also in wikipedia) it means robustness. Semantically it is possible to differentiate the two. Robustness of a system refers to its sensitivity to perturbations. In other words small differences in parameters would not affect the steady state of the system (parameter changes in a physically plausible range ...


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Hansen (2006) says (middle of page 19): A link between genetic and environmental robustness is plausible, because genetic en environmental disturbances ay often affect the same functional pathways in the organism, and any increase int he robustness has been fund in studies of RNA folding (Ancel & Fontana 2000), in the effects of heat-shock proteins ...


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Dpy is a class of genes. Usually they're written in lowercase when referring to a mutant allele. The name Dpy itself stands for dumpy and comes from the morphological change that occurs when one or more of the genes are mutated: the worms appear short and fat, or dumpy. Another big class is Unc. Mutations in those genes cause uncoordinated movement. For ...



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