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"More intelligent" as more capable of learning Domesticated varieties of animals generally aren't "smarter" as per objective measurements of brain power, however, I'd argue that they would feel smarter for us because they have different patterns of learning. For most living beings, there is a general shift of the "explore vs exploit" behavior balance as ...


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It's not entirely clear what you're asking. If you're asking whether domestic animals are more friendly to humans than wild animals, the answer is generally yes. However, this does not make them "more evolved". Domestic and wild animals are ultimately derived from a shared common ancestor, so they have been evolving for an equal period of time. In ...


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Domestication has little, if anything, to do with intelligence. From biologist Jared Diamond, the 6 criteria for domestication are as follows: Flexible diet – Creatures that are willing to consume a wide variety of food sources and can live off less cumulative food from the food pyramid (such as corn or wheat), particularly food that is not utilized ...


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It depends on the nature of the insertion or deletion. Many mutations are point mutations, where one single nucleotide is changed: ATGACTACGCTATTCAGT M T T L F S ATGTCTACGCTATTCAGT M S T L F S Notice that changing the fourth A to a T caused a T->S change in the final protein, and didn't change its length. However, an insertion/deletion is ...


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Originally the position had a G:C pair. After the mutation, there is an oxoG:C pair. Upon replication, the strand with C will pair to G and the original pair will be created as expected. However, since oxoG can also pair with A, the strand with oxoG may form an oxoG:A pair. Another round of replication gives the products T:A and oxoG:A. Thus the G in the ...


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Mimicry, in biology, phenomenon characterized by the superficial resemblance of two or more organisms that are not closely related taxonomically. This resemblance confers an advantage—such as protection from predation—upon one or both organisms through some form of “information flow” that passes between the organisms and the animate agent of selection. This ...


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It means that they recorded family information for the traits that they were investigating in the paper, i.e., they had plumage characteristics for siblings or parent-offspring pairs. Look for this phrase in the paper: "phenotypic data usually available for one or two generations, mostly from parent-offspring pairs or siblings."


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One example that may interest you Rory M are the so-called toxin - antitoxin pairs in bacteria. Interestingly enough, many bacterial species need a way to protect themselves from their own toxins. Thus, for a particular toxin, a corresponding antitoxin is synthesized (most often both are proteins, but the antitoxin may be RNA as well, three types of toxin - ...


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Chymotrypsinogen is a proteolytic protein that is translated and stored in the pancreas in an inactive form. They are only activated when they are secreted from the pancreas. Other zymogens such as apoptotic caspases have similar lengths of time between translation and use.


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Proteins that are membrane localized or secreted would take time to become active or even become poised for activity. Membrane receptors may remain inactive until triggered by the appropriate ligand. Nonetheless proteins won't remain (inactive or active) for a very long time as constant turnover happens in the cell. One example, similar to what MarchHo ...


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I can think of 3 explanations (not mutually exclusive) for the maintenance of important genetic disorders that prevent the sick carrier to reproduce. Following what you said, the frequency of a given allele in a population is influenced by selection, drift, migration and mutation. Some disease present at low frequency can typically spontaneously de novo ...


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This is a question which is not easy to answer, especially the 50.000bp number (which I haven't found anywhere in there literature). However, I found some evidence, partly derived from plant and mammal artificial chromosomes (references 1 and 2), partly from the original publication from Murray and colleagues (reference 3). The problems with small ...


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PCR ideally doubles the number of amplified DNA molecules in each cycle. So after the first step you have 10 molecules, after the second 20, the third 50 and so on. The formula for the calculation is: n × 2cycles = number of molecules n is the number of molecules you start your PCR with, cycles is the number of cycles used. In your case this would be: 5 ...


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Amine, alkyl, and carboxylate. I'd guess the part that you're having trouble on is that the alpha carbon in the center of the generic AA structure is part of an alkyl functional group Edit The original answer that I gave might have been too clever for its own good. Depending on how one looks at the question, the third functional group could instead be ...


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Hah! You can relax. There's no difference between RyrY and RrYy, as there is no fundamental ordering of genes like that. That being said, the standard convention would be to write RrYy (or at least RryY), so if your grader is a pedantic hardass they might take off a couple of points, but probably not the whole 16.


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The main technique is sperm separation or sorting, where you separate sperm by gender, and only use the gender that you want. Existing techniques aren't perfect. AFAIK, they are typically less than 90% accurate, but it is still better than 50%. Typically, this involves some type of cell sorting device often with some kind of fluorescent tag marker. The ...


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Yes, that mixture of shapes can happen. Differences in the nucleotide base sequences between the two alleles of a gene can lead to differences in amino acid sequence, which in some cases large differences in protein shape. One example would be if one allele changed a cystine codon to any other codon, leading to loss of a disulfide bond needed to stabilize ...


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SwissProt is a human-annotated database of genes/proteins with known functions.


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Databases There are too many to list really. For example there are databases dedicated to genes of individual species, like Wormbase, SGDB and countless others. Alternatively, as others mention a great place to kick off your search is the NCBI. Finding your nucleotide sequence in databases It sounds like you already have your sequence though, so if you want ...


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NCBI is a good option. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov If you're looking for a gene sequence, you can search for the gene name in the nucleotide database. For example, here is the annotated human insulin gene; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/J00265.1


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I am trying to collect here perhaps related material. Certain diseases and perhaps certain extraordinary skills may be attributed to certain polarities. Diseases Mothers with "bilateral hereditary primary breast cancer" are more likely to carry it to offspring (I.). Material I. Ma K. Embryonic left-right separation mechanism allows ...


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Most of the above answers are incorrect. The definition of the genome is all of the encoding genetic material. An individual human genome includes two full sets of 23 chromosomes as well as mitochondrial DNA. There is one copy of this genome in most human cells. A few exceptions: Red blood cells don't have nucleuses and have no chromosomes. They don't ...


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incomplete dominance are more likely mean blend, like you make juice contain apple and pear by blender, you can not distinguish them. codominance can be think as mix, like you a salad that contain apple and pear. like the example of incomplete dominance: pink flower, pink is differ from white and red, but it related to the two color, as the example of ...


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Assuming you have stated the question correctly, the answer key is incorrect for exactly the reasons you have given and your reasoning and consequent answer are correct. I would double-check you have read the question correctly and then conclude the answer key is incorrect. It happens.


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AB blood group is the best example one can give about co dominance. What matters is both A and B are dominant and are expressed independently of one another. The quantity they are produced is not important here as our genetic make up cannot do relatively very large difference between synthesis of the two.


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Certainly if you are talking about signals, red, white, and pink phenotypes are distinguishable rather than intermediates... But inheriting a character is far away from the concept of distinguishing signals. As genotype of an organism decides its phenotype, you should know that in a hybrid both the paternal and maternal traits would exist. If one is ...


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This is not as hard, as it first seems. Lets have a look at the single enzyme digests first: The digest with enzyme A and B only leads to products which are 5kB (5000 bp) away from each other. Since they are of the same size, both equally sized restriction fragments appear as one band. So each enzyme cuts the plasmid exactly in half. The double digest is a ...


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Cloning of animals typically involves: Taking nucleus from healthy adult cell of animal to clone Taking a healthy egg and replace the egg's nucleus with nucleus from source animal. Implanting egg in female, stimulating the pregnancy process. This same process should work on humans BUT: "Is it really possible to create humans in lab?" No. Animal cloning ...


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The term intergenic is more or less obsolete now. In fact it is ironical to say that a gene, which can give rise to a functional protein or an RNA, is expressed from an intergenic region. However the usage continues for both lncRNAs and miRNAs (other major type of ncRNA in metazoans1 - piRNAs have different classification). lncRNAs are vaguely classified as ...


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Short answer: The two parents transmit the same amount of genetic information to their offspring ....or almost Long answer: Nuclear versus Cytoplasmic DNA All Eukaryotes (everything that is neither a Bacteria nor a Archeabacteria) have nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA. Most of the DNA is nuclear DNA. As it's name indicates, nuclear DNA is found in the nucleus. ...



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