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Sequences that don't appear in a genome are called "nullomers". That article claims that there are no 10bp sequences that don't appear in the human genome, and 80 11bp sequences that don't, citing this paper.


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DNA polymerase must catalyse the addition of 4 different nucleotides to the growing strand. This means that it cannot directly determine which base to incorporate at a specific point (how would it 'know' which base to incorporate and how it would it change its specificity for different bases). This means that the specificity for which base pair to ...


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High-fidelity DNA polymerases have several safeguards to protect against both making and propagating mistakes while copying DNA. Such enzymes have a significant binding preference for the correct versus the incorrect nucleoside triphosphate during polymerization. If an incorrect nucleotide does bind in the polymerase active site, incorporation is slowed ...


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You can see this review. There are several different types of alternative splicing (AS) events, which can be classified into four main subgroups. The first type is exon skipping, in which a type of exon known as a cassette exon is spliced out of the transcript together with its flanking introns (see the figure, part a). Exon skipping accounts ...



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