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Genetic variation can affect the levels of protein; consider a variant that reduces the amount of mRNA transcribed, this could have a profound effect on the amount of mRNA available to translate into a protein. Consider another variant that does not affect the abundance of the mRNA transcribed, but alters one of the many important sequences that are ...


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Phenotype is the physical result that one sees that is the outcome of genetic makeup. Genotype is the code that is written in the DNA (or RNA if you are a retrovirus). Enzyme composition in the cell, hair color, proclivity towards certain diseases; pretty much everything is a product of genoptype. There are some other factors in the environment that affect ...


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Just to make this post a tiny bit more useful, I must add that there are several additional sources I've found: UniProt has an open dataset called humsavar ClinVar database HGMD database OMIM A paper with a manually collected database based on recent publications in Nature Genetics. Different datasets intersect to some extent, but all in all you get ...


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I would say they are considered different genes because each isoform is under the control of its own promoter.


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Are there mutations that would make one longer than the other? If they're not exactly the same, what's the range in length variation? As pointed out in the other answers, there can be mutations that change the length of the DNA between individuals and even single cells of the same tissue. There are different processes that can change the genome length. The ...


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Welcome to Biology.SE. if I take an X-chromosome from two random humans would I count exactly 155,270,560 base pairs in both cases No, you would probably not find the exact same number of base pairs because mutations do no only change one nucleotide to another (what we call a substitution) but sometimes add or delete few (or sometimes many) ...


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Humans generally have similar nucleotide counts, but they are not often going to be exactly the same. What allows for this variation is multiply determined, but here are some ideas. The neutralist hypothesis states that most genetic change is not subject to selection [1], and this is especially evident in humans where there is a lot of junk DNA outside of ...


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The short answer is yes, other animals can experience dwarfism, including dogs, although it may not be what you are expecting. Dogs are apparently particularly susceptible but they often are a special case. We've so heavily bred dogs for whatever traits we desire, so now entire breeds are affected by dwarfism, such as dachshunds and corgis. The reality is ...



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