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8

The minimum requirement for E. coli and other bacteria to grow and survive is called minimal medium. It's even defined at Merriam-Webster: a medium that contains only inorganic salts, a simple carbon source (as carbon dioxide or glucose), and water Water and glucose are pretty easy, but the source of salts may often change; regardless, you really need ...


6

I thought this was a great question. In particular because it hints at two questions. The first is 'why carbohydrates are used to store energy' in general. The second being 'why glucose rather than other carbohydrates?' in particular. Glucose metabolism (and glycogen storage) is a core gene pathway - its found in bacteria archaea and eukaryotes. So ...


5

High intracellular glucose. Affects: all cells that do not depend on insulin to take in glucose. Examples: neurons [1], kidney cells, retina cells. Causes: high extracellular glucose (in most cases hyperglycemia) Effects: promoting necrotic cell death through $H_2O_2$ (peroxide) formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic ...


3

This is only a guess but I hope somewhat educated, so refute me. The establishment of glucose as nutritional molecule is mainly linked with the availability of carbohydrates in the environment, i.e. plants as nutrition. Before plants evolved however, there were only bacteria and they use glucose as one of many oligosaccharides. But more important than ...


3

Yes, but no. In other words, this quote is not probably not true in the ways you'd think. Bacteria can survive on practically nothing for long periods of time, but whether you call that life is subjective. Nitrogen is necessary for all the co-enzymes and proteins to sustain life. In order to get energy, if E coli. needs to metabolize nitrogen to waste at ...


2

The glucose can react with proteins, damaging them. This is called glycation. Note that glucose is the preferred body fuel and has a 10 fold lower ability to cause glycation than fructose. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycation


2

In prokaryotes the glucose transporter is always present in the cell membrane; in cells whose glucose uptake is insulin-regulated the transporter is only present in the plama membrane when hormone levels are high. GLUT4 is the isulin-regulated glucose transporter found in muscle and adipose tissue. When insulin levels are low the GLUT4 protein is in the ...


2

I think this experiment (PDF file) will help you understand the basic concept about the fate of oxygen in aerobic respiration. Basically the result is: The oxygen of respiratory carbon dioxide is in exchange equilibrium with body water. Utilized molecular oxygen is converted to body water. In respect to calculation of electrons donated to oxygen, just ...


1

Glucose catabolism is a multistep process involving a series of reactions. The reaction you gave is simply the overall, balanced equation; it doesn't actually happen like that in living cells. All diatomic oxygen is converted to water in the electron transport chain, but water is also consumed and produced throughout the preceding steps, which is why the ...


1

This is not a new thing, by checking the articles about non-invasive glucose level measurement, it started in the early 90's. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the human inner lip were obtained by using a special optimized accessory for diffuse reflectance measurements. The partial-least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration algorithm was applied for ...


1

Based on experience with one commercially available retail glucose meter it is my belief that the glucose content of a fairly wide range of water-based liquids can be measured. These meters should always be checked against more reliable systems but I think they give fairly consistent and correct results. If the meter uses absorbent strips which transfer ...


1

Too much glucose leads to the formation of advanced glycated end products, which deposit in tissues like glomerulus and cause disease like diabetic nephropathy. Also glucose is osmotically active, so when it starts appearing in urine (because of its high levels in blood), it leads to polyuria, following which the lost water is recovered from body tissues, ...


1

Glucose transports from the blood into the cells via facilitated diffusion. This means that glucose goes from higher concentrations (in the blood) to lower concentration (in the cell). Therefore, if you have super high glucose concentrations in the blood, you will have a ton of glucose in the cells. Glucose will oxidize by itself, thus it will contribute a ...


1

Determining what is considered to be "normal" is quite challenging indeed. Both the ADA and the WHO look at upgrading diagnosis limits and both have a conservative approach, primarily due to the difficulties in conducting large scale studies and the anomalies between assumptions of plasma glucose distribution and what is probably actually present in ...


1

Where is this occurring in the body? Almost totally in the liver. To leave the liver as a sugar, it would have had to been converted to glucose, right? Correct, but it's not a direct conversion. Fructose is metabolized almost completely in the liver in humans, and is directed toward replenishment of liver glycogen and triglyceride synthesis... ...



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