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In general it is the reciprical action of the hormones of the fed and fasted state — insulin and glucagon — that are responsible for this, together with the differences in hormone-sensitivity of the glucose transporters in muscle and brain. See the accepted answer to this question: During starvation, does the human body do anything to prioritize which organs ...


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A pathway doesn’t have substrates, only a reaction does. And therefore there’s no such thing as a direct or indirect substrate. You can perhaps ask what the precursors are for glycogen (but do you mean immediate or distal), or what the substrates are for the first reaction in the pathway (but only if it is quite clear what the first reaction i). That’s the ...



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