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15

Simply put, old habits die hard; physicians and other medical personnel have grown up with the old species designations so will continue to use them. This is somewhat the reverse of the case with E. coli, where 80-90% of the genome is variable across strains. Lin-Hui gives a brief history, where strains identified early were given specific names within ...


14

According to Gleick, Feynman spent the summer of 1960 in Delbrück's lab at Caltech and discovered intragenic supression. This is where the expression of a gene which has been knocked out by a mutation may be restored by a second mutation within the same gene. Fenynman worked with the rII mutant of phage T4 and was looking for back mutations in E.coli ...


11

The pollex was a Roman length measurement, approximately equivalent to an inch. The pollex was also known as the uncia, which is where the word "inch" comes from. There were 12 unciae in a pes ...


10

The branch of science you are looking for is taxonomy, that is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. Modern taxonomy was born from the studies of the Swedish zoologist Carl Linnæus (1707-1778), who first introduced, in his books Systema Naturae (Systems of Nature) and Species Plantarum (Plants Species) the ...


10

Some that just come to mind, in random order: One cannot skip reading: Richard Dawkins - The selfish gene And, obviously: Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species And, for those interested in the evolution of the brain (and its quirks): David J Linden - The Accidental Mind Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Not very ...


9

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis first shows up in pubmed in Gänzle et al. (1998). They reference Trüper and De'Clari (1997) for the name Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. The latter say: As none of them makes sense in the nominative apposition construction, we hereby correct these names to forms that are in agreement with Rule 12c as follows. ... ...


9

I don't know if these are his earliest descriptions but Darwin did describe several species of Planaria, such as Planaria vaginuloides, P. oceania, plus a new genus, Diplanaria in 1844. Darwin, C. R. 1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of ...


9

There were many (more or less) non-theological theories of how life had developed before Darwin, starting at the ancient greeks. Many theories included spontaneous generation but also aspects of modification by descent of existing species (i.e. evolutionary change), but most were not that well developed and complete thought. However, one of the more complete ...


9

Front row, left to right; Victor McKusick, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson, Walter Gilbert and John Kendrew.


8

"Caud." refers to the tail (lat: cauda) and, judging from the description, "poll." seems to be another word for inch. So the translation should be something like: Body length: 8 inches, tail length: 9 inches.


8

Such projections are more formally known as spiculations. Most commonly, we talk about spiculations with respect to the radiographic appearance of malignant breast and lung lesions. This paper* describes the correlation between the mammorgraphic appearance of spiculated breast lesions and their pathology (microscopic appearance), which is a reasonable start ...


7

Basically nothing. The Nazis did unfathomably terrible things of little value, and they did it poorly. This* is a fascinating, albeit long, read. It goes through some of the ethics of the data, but first lists some more of the "experiments" the Nazis performed. To add to your list: high-altitude, sea water potability, tuberculosis, poisoning, artificial ...


7

A good recollection of the early days of micro and molecular biology is "The Eighth day of Creation" It covers the early use of e. coli, the discovery of phage, transcriptional elements and the impact that DNA structure had. It's very comprehensive and really useful if you are doing molecular biology today.


7

This is a very interesting question. Many people have researched this topic, and many still are. But regardless, I had never heard of Alan Turing's contributions, so thank you! First of all, I cannot actually find who first coined the term morphogen. Though people had hypothesized that chemicals could play a critical role in development through much of the ...


7

The first determination of a recognition site for a restriction endonulease was reported in: Kelly & Smith (1970) A restriction enzyme from Hemophilus influenzae II. Base sequence of the recognition site. J Mol. Biol. 51: 393-409 The enzyme was then called endonuclease R, but is now known as HindII (or HincII). The method used was to cut DNA with ...


7

I've discovered that searching for Darwin on the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) appears to prioritise in its search results those species named by Darwin rather than for him. The first page of results includes many barnacle species (as noted by 3cat). The first five species are: Amphibalanus amphitrite (Striped Barnacle) Megabalanus coccopoma (Titan Acorn ...


6

The process of long-term depression (LTD) was first discovered in the cerebellum by Ito et al. in 1982: Ito M, Kano M. Long-lasting depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell transmission induced by conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. Neurosci Lett. 1982;33(3):253-8 Ito M, Sakurai M and Tongroach P. ...


6

Mouth pipetting, while almost unheard of in modern laboratories in developed countries, is still very much a current protocol in many parts of the world. For example, this paper analyses the proportion of clinical labs in Pakistan and found evidence of poor biosafety practices (emphasis mine): Results: A total of 1,647 (92.4%) males and 135 (7.6%) ...


5

If I understand John S. Wilkins' magnificent book on the history of the "species" concept correctly, the basis of biological taxonomy can be traced back to the Aristotelian idea of per genus et differentiam: you can define something as consisting of a general type ("a plant") with a difference ("made of wood") to define an entity ("a tree"), which could then ...


5

It doesn't have very many reviews, but The Epic History of Biology sounds like it's perfect. Flipping through the first chapter in the preview, it doesn't seem overly technical in any way, so secondary school-level knowledge is probably enough. If your associates have absolutely no biology experience, perhaps a run through a popular press book would ...


5

More than 13,000. Plants: >9,000 names. In Systema Naturae 10th edition, commonly taken as the starting point of modern taxonomy, Linnaeus is reported to have published around 6,000 plant names (I haven't counted, but Müller-Wille gives 5,900 and Stearn says "almost 6,000". The Wikipedia figure of 7,700 may come from a different edition of Systema Naturae). ...


5

This question has two answers: The difference was first described in 1936 by Harold Percival Himsworth, which described it in this article. At this time it was established that there are two forms of Diabetes, one sensitive to insuline while the other is not. The terms Diabetes type 1 and 2 where established somewhere between 1974 and 1976, for details see ...


5

After reading your question, I had a vague memory that this subject was indirectly touched upon in "On the Origin of Species", so I did some text searches (in this pdf version I found online). From what I can see, Darwin never used the technical term 'variance' (I don't know how old this use of the word is), but 'variability' is often used, both with regard ...


4

Indeed this is a bit of interesting history. Linnaeus was not a modest man, but he was also a prodigious contributor to biology. He made many editions of his two major works Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae published in 1759. Systema Naturae covered both plants and animals and had 12 editions, eventually with 3 volumes in several parts. ...


4

A fantastic book that covers the evolution of modern science since the Renaissance (including a great deal of biology) is The Scientists by John Gribbin. I found that by focusing on the people doing the science in the context of the society in which they lived, I got a much better understanding for why early scientists thought the way they did and researched ...


4

The time before Darwinism, people believed life as an entity which is created rather evolved. But there were great biologists interested in the relationship between species, who deliberately thought of evolution ideas and some of them believed in ape-human similarities and placed humans and apes in same group. In 1699, Edward Tyson, an English anatomist, ...


4

Short answer. It was discovered pretty early (late 1800's). It is easy to get (you probably know where it comes from), purify, grow and is not virulent. E.coli spreads very rapidly (30 minutes division rate). Why this one in particular and not another similar bacteria? Well you have to choose something at some stage and usually the more an organism is used ...


3

By far the best book I've read on the history of biology is A Guinea Pig's History of Biology, by Jim Endersby. It tells the history of the field by focusing on experimental organisms and the contributions which were made by studying them. It has an engaging narrative style and the idea of focussing on organisms' stories is an excellent and original one. ...


3

Just open Wikipedia, your question is answered there: Initially, each Salmonella species was named according to clinical considerations,[15] e.g., Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis (hog cholera). After it was recognized that host specificity did not exist for many species, new strains (or serovar, short for ...


3

I just came across Understanding Biotechnology. There is one very positive and one very negative review. I haven't read the book myself, but it looks that it is exactly what I was looking for: the table of content includes topics like small history overview, genetic engineering, gene therapy, pharmacogenomics, etc. It might be even useful for people with ...



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