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14

According to Gleick, Feynman spent the summer of 1960 in Delbrück's lab at Caltech and discovered intragenic supression. This is where the expression of a gene which has been knocked out by a mutation may be restored by a second mutation within the same gene. Fenynman worked with the rII mutant of phage T4 and was looking for back mutations in E.coli ...


14

Simply put, old habits die hard; physicians and other medical personnel have grown up with the old species designations so will continue to use them. This is somewhat the reverse of the case with E. coli, where 80-90% of the genome is variable across strains. Lin-Hui gives a brief history, where strains identified early were given specific names within ...


11

The pollex was a Roman length measurement, approximately equivalent to an inch. The pollex was also known as the uncia, which is where the word "inch" comes from. There were 12 unciae in a pes ...


10

The branch of science you are looking for is taxonomy, that is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. Modern taxonomy was born from the studies of the Swedish zoologist Carl Linnæus (1707-1778), who first introduced, in his books Systema Naturae (Systems of Nature) and Species Plantarum (Plants Species) the ...


10

Some that just come to mind, in random order: One cannot skip reading: Richard Dawkins - The selfish gene And, obviously: Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species And, for those interested in the evolution of the brain (and its quirks): David J Linden - The Accidental Mind Oliver Sacks - The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Not very ...


9

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis first shows up in pubmed in Gänzle et al. (1998). They reference Trüper and De'Clari (1997) for the name Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. The latter say: As none of them makes sense in the nominative apposition construction, we hereby correct these names to forms that are in agreement with Rule 12c as follows. ... ...


9

I don't know if these are his earliest descriptions but Darwin did describe several species of Planaria, such as Planaria vaginuloides, P. oceania, plus a new genus, Diplanaria in 1844. Darwin, C. R. 1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of ...


8

"Caud." refers to the tail (lat: cauda) and, judging from the description, "poll." seems to be another word for inch. So the translation should be something like: Body length: 8 inches, tail length: 9 inches.


7

Basically nothing. The Nazis did unfathomably terrible things of little value, and they did it poorly. This* is a fascinating, albeit long, read. It goes through some of the ethics of the data, but first lists some more of the "experiments" the Nazis performed. To add to your list: high-altitude, sea water potability, tuberculosis, poisoning, artificial ...


7

A good recollection of the early days of micro and molecular biology is "The Eighth day of Creation" It covers the early use of e. coli, the discovery of phage, transcriptional elements and the impact that DNA structure had. It's very comprehensive and really useful if you are doing molecular biology today.


7

The first determination of a recognition site for a restriction endonulease was reported in: Kelly & Smith (1970) A restriction enzyme from Hemophilus influenzae II. Base sequence of the recognition site. J Mol. Biol. 51: 393-409 The enzyme was then called endonuclease R, but is now known as HindII (or HincII). The method used was to cut DNA with ...


7

I've discovered that searching for Darwin on the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) appears to prioritise in its search results those species named by Darwin rather than for him. The first page of results includes many barnacle species (as noted by 3cat). The first five species are: Amphibalanus amphitrite (Striped Barnacle) Megabalanus coccopoma (Titan Acorn ...


6

The process of long-term depression (LTD) was first discovered in the cerebellum by Ito et al. in 1982: Ito M, Kano M. Long-lasting depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell transmission induced by conjunctive stimulation of parallel fibers and climbing fibers in the cerebellar cortex. Neurosci Lett. 1982;33(3):253-8 Ito M, Sakurai M and Tongroach P. ...


6

This is a very interesting question. Many people have researched this topic, and many still are. But regardless, I had never heard of Alan Turing's contributions, so thank you! First of all, I cannot actually find who first coined the term morphogen. Though people had hypothesized that chemicals could play a critical role in development through much of the ...


5

It doesn't have very many reviews, but The Epic History of Biology sounds like it's perfect. Flipping through the first chapter in the preview, it doesn't seem overly technical in any way, so secondary school-level knowledge is probably enough. If your associates have absolutely no biology experience, perhaps a run through a popular press book would ...


5

If I understand John S. Wilkins' magnificent book on the history of the "species" concept correctly, the basis of biological taxonomy can be traced back to the Aristotelian idea of per genus et differentiam: you can define something as consisting of a general type ("a plant") with a difference ("made of wood") to define an entity ("a tree"), which could then ...


5

This question has two answers: The difference was first described in 1936 by Harold Percival Himsworth, which described it in this article. At this time it was established that there are two forms of Diabetes, one sensitive to insuline while the other is not. The terms Diabetes type 1 and 2 where established somewhere between 1974 and 1976, for details see ...


4

Just open Wikipedia, your question is answered there: Initially, each Salmonella species was named according to clinical considerations,[15] e.g., Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis (hog cholera). After it was recognized that host specificity did not exist for many species, new strains (or serovar, short for ...


4

A fantastic book that covers the evolution of modern science since the Renaissance (including a great deal of biology) is The Scientists by John Gribbin. I found that by focusing on the people doing the science in the context of the society in which they lived, I got a much better understanding for why early scientists thought the way they did and researched ...


3

By far the best book I've read on the history of biology is A Guinea Pig's History of Biology, by Jim Endersby. It tells the history of the field by focusing on experimental organisms and the contributions which were made by studying them. It has an engaging narrative style and the idea of focussing on organisms' stories is an excellent and original one. ...


3

I just came across Understanding Biotechnology. There is one very positive and one very negative review. I haven't read the book myself, but it looks that it is exactly what I was looking for: the table of content includes topics like small history overview, genetic engineering, gene therapy, pharmacogenomics, etc. It might be even useful for people with ...


3

A Google search for "Huntingtons disease gene discovery" yielded this page at the Nature Education Scitable website. The following citations are provided regarding the molecular basis of HD: Huntingtin (HTT) was the first disease-associated gene to be molecularly mapped to a human chromosome (Gusella et al., 1983)2. Ten years later, scientists ...


2

I don't know very many books that might be referred to as the Grand History of Biology or anything like that. That's...a big topic. Really big. How about some suggestions for good Biology/Medical History books accessible to lay people: And the Band Played On, by Randy Shilts, an account of the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in the U.S. The Great Influenza, ...


2

My two favorite books are Molecular Biology made simple and fun and Biotechnology for Beginners. Both are well written and fun to read. As their names suggest, the former covers the basics of biology and the latter covers the basics of biotechnology.


2

This book, although a little dated, has given me an incredible appreciation of biology that I never gained in school: What is Life? by Erwin Shrodinger I am not a biologist, but I occasionally work on mathematical-biology and have training in physics and theoretical computer science. This book was much more accessible to me that other books on biology. ...


2

I would think this is very much still "used." 60 years later, we finally have the first experimental support for it: In this blog article about this journal piece the authors studied the ridges that form on the roof of mouse mouths. They manipulated the signaling molecules that induce their formation and observed changes in line with Turing's theory. Of ...


2

I don't have access to Provine's book, and I can't describe the details of the hooded rat experiments, but here is an attempt to explain the importance of the work. Darwin published “Origin of Species” in 1859. He proposed that modern species were all descended from ancestral species, and that evolution proceeded by natural selection. He believed that ...


2

While it's not meant to be a history of all of medicine, I thought the The Emperor of All Maladies touched on a good deal of the history as the author took us through how cancers were diagnosed and treated since long ago. Great book, that was.


2

This is an interesting question and one that really has two parts: the factual and the ethical. I remember discussing this topic in my 'ethics training' classes in graduate school (where I admit that I may have acted as an ass simply to demonstrate that our ethics training was unfailable). The factual: "Are there any valuable findings published by the ...


2

As most of the comment have pointed it out, It's nearly impossible to find out. This is my try: Dr. L Alexander wrote in his paper, Medical Science under Dictatorship: Hitler issued the first direct order for euthanasia in Germany on September 1, 1939, as his Panzers moved on the Blitzkrieg of Poland. Organizations with humanitarian-sounding names ...



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