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11

I think no one can really deny the existence of HIV or AIDS, just a search on google scholar will show >1,500,000 hits for each of those terms, and ask (hopefully any) doctor and they will say it does, though AIDS denialists do debate whether HIV causes AIDS. This paper explains the process of HIV causing AIDS. Further, AIDS denialists have not offered up ...


9

Usually an antibody test against HIV is positive three month after the infection. Before this time a test can only be done with molecular biology methods as PCR. However, it is possible, that patients which have definitely been tested in an early phase using molecular biology methods and which afterwards receive a antiretroviral therapy (ART) that these ...


9

nope - the test contains antibodies to HIV proteins, but nothing from HIV itself. The 'antigen test' tests for antigens, it doesn't itself contain any antigens. Antibodies are proteins that animals (like humans) produce to fight of viral and bacterial infections, they don't come from viruses. Even if the test did contain HIV proteins, it could not ...


9

Alright, having read the citation linked, and doing a little poking of my own, here's my approach at an answer: Some human herpes virus infections may compete with HIV infection. Essentially, some strains (not the ones you normally think of) infect CD4 cells - the same cells targeted by HIV. These strains down regulate transcription in CD4 cells, which in ...


7

Western Blot tests on young children are practically useless, since they test for antibodies. The child will likely have antibodies passed down by the HIV+ mother, regardless of whether the child has HIV. The test will show the antibodies, which may be mistaken for an active immune response from the child. As such, there will be a high false-positive rate ...


7

HIV hides in a number of known cells and unknown cells. Although most of the damage of HIV is caused by its infection of shorter lived cells, long lived cells which it infects includes anything with adequate receptors including memory T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and some glial cells too. These cells are found widespread in the body from tissues to ...


6

Yes, it is possible and the chances are pretty high. According to the WHO paper linked below, the rate of partially or completely breastfed children which get infected by this route is about 20-35%, while the rate of children which are not infected and doesn't get breatfed is zero (no surprise here). The mechanism by which this infection occurs is ...


6

I'm not sure if I should be posting this as an answer, but I think a very approachable and accurate account of the history of HIV can be found from Dinis de Sousa et al.. I agree with what has been posted above. On the theory that a picture is worth a thousands words, you might also introduce skeptics to the cryo-electron microscopy images of the virus ...


6

Being HIV+ and having AIDS are slightly different terminologies: If the virus is detectable in an individual by existing medical techniques he/she is called HIV+. A HIV+ person is said to have progressed to AIDS only when the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count drops below 200 cells per ml of blood. Cornelius has nicely summarized the infection routes so I wont ...


5

You read right: it can only come from people already infected through: sexual contact contact with an infected person's body fluids (blood transfusions), although not all fluids carry HIV (saliva, tears) from mother to child (pregnancy, breast feeding) Having unprotected sex with multiple partners statistically increases the risk of stumbling upon ...


5

Your answer is correct. HIV-1 encodes a single homodimeric aspartic protease, with each monomer containing the classic Asp-Thr-Gly motif, and the dimer's active site being formed with the two monomeric active sites creating a cleft where the proteolysis takes place. In it, water acts as a nucleophile in conjunction with the aspartic acid residue to hydrolyze ...


4

I would say no. Some HIV strains are X4-tropic and not R5 tropic. That means that the virus uses the CXCR4 coreceptor and not the CCR5 coreceptor for entry into the CD4-positive cell.


4

This very recent (and freely available) review pretty much sums the problem up in the introduction: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2012.202 (Barton et al., 2013: Prospects for Treatment of Latent HIV) And here's an update more specifically on the problems with actually curing an individual of HIV infection, if you have access: ...


4

Since early March we know, that there is the first patient which has been cured by HAART. According to the paper it has been proven that the infant was infected with HIV. This was done by detecting the virus even after the first 48 hours, this rules out that the virus transmitted by the mother without infection. The infant was first treated when it was 30 ...


3

Yes, you can transmit HIV with infected needles/syringes. This is a quite common mechanism of transmission when drug addicts share and re-use needles and syringes and also in third world hospitals with poor hygiene standards. A drop of blood is considered infectious at least until it has completely dried up (some research showed that it might be contagious ...


3

To answer your title question: Yes, that is a valid principle of curing HIV. In fact that's pretty much the basic idea behind treating any infection. 1) HIV strains use a combination of two receptors to enter a cell: CD4 and either CXCR4 or CCR5. It can infect and hide out in any cell which expresses both of these receptors; namely CD4+ T cells and some ...


3

If you read this article, you will find that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells are probably the major mediators of the immune response against M. tuberculosis. Since HIV severely depletes the number of CD4+ T-cells (and to a lesser extent other kinds of lymphocytes), it stands to reason that the frequency of infection and virulence will be substantially increased in ...


3

While it's difficult to prove a negative, I know of no cases where a patient has been treated with HAART to the extent that their viral load never rises again. Keep in mind that, if nothing else, such a study would be extremely hard to do, as proving you've "cured" someone would require extremely long term followup. HAART is however quite good at ...


3

No, the protein components of viruses may be able to initiate the infectious process, i.e. injection, but if there is no RNA or DNA, there is no virus to inject into the target cell. Hence none of the viral genome's action such as replication or transcription will occur and the cell itself will remain unchanged. However, some effects of viral infection are ...


2

I am afraid your question is really not clear. You are asking one thing in the title of your question, another in the question body and a third in your comments. If you are asking (as you did in your comment above) what would happen if a virus with no enzymes were to infect a cell, see below. In the case of HIV (and other retroviruses) some of the most ...


2

The one that actually makes me skeptical of the use of this is that this "cure" was primarily a massive dose of antiretrovirals used as catchup therapy because the infant's mother didn't have access to prophylactic treatments while she was pregnant and delivering. Basically, it's a cure that requires you to have access to antivirals very, very near the ...


2

There are two main components of the immune system that are involved: Antibodies and T-cells. T-cells are responsible for activating white blood cells to help fight off infection. These are the cells the HIV infects. Antibodies bond to the HIV virus and try to neutralize them before they can infect more cells. Unfortunately as the HIV virus replicates, ...


2

let's say during sexual relationship, some cuts on body (for example, inside vagina) occurred. Then even if the partner did not have HIV viruses, and a person afterwards does not sex with partners with HIV viruses, is there a chance that he/she may get HIV viruses, still? No, because there is no virus present in any of the people involved to be ...


2

Your question depends hugely on the factors at play. The rate of transmission depends on the route of infection. Wikipedia has a good breakdown showing the wide variability. Are they getting a blood transfusion? 90%. Mother-to-infant? 25%. Male-to-female vaginal sex? No higher than 0.3%. Not to mention that the incidence varies massively between ...


2

Q1: Partially. T cells are important for the immune response through pathways other than cytokine release. Being activated by contact with another immune cell presenting their corresponding antigen, T cells proliferate and themselves activate their compatible B cell counterpart. These then produce antibodies specific to that antigen, the basis of the ...


2

Cornelius covers Primary Infection and some of Dissemination. Wysiwyg covers some reasons when HIV cannot proceeds to AIDS. Little however is discussed yet exactly about the Pathogenesis - how HIV proceeds into AIDS. There are many stages: Primary infection Dissemination of virus to lymphoid organs Latency Increased HIV expression Constitutional ...


1

According to wikipedia: HIV protease inhibitors are peptide-like chemicals that competitively inhibit the action of the virus aspartyl protease. These drugs prevent proteolytic cleavage of HIV Gag and Pol polyproteins that include essential structural and enzymatic components of the virus. This prevents the conversion of HIV particles into their ...


1

The virus must be present in one partner's body for transmission to occur. Also, HIV can be transmitted through blood to blood contact. There is currently a similar question/conversation that I have provided a link for here. It may provide some slightly more scientific answers than what I can:) How does a person get AIDS?


1

You have to design your primers properly. Usually, in real-time PCR, you don't choose a very long product. Ideal product size is 150-300. Next, see what your NRTI is analogous to. For e.g. if I am using AZT (Azathymidie), I would place my reverse primer at or after the last T. There are alternate techniques as well. You can use primer extension ...



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