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20

This is due to the fact that skin is the interface where heat is lost. Our body due to constant functioning, produces heat constantly as a by-product (due to exothermic reaction of ATP break mainly). The excess heat needs to be conducted away from the body, or it will cause a decrease in the body metabolism to prevent temperature rise. Heat is lost mainly ...


8

The body can never stop working. If the body stops working, you die. And while the body is working it cannot avoid generating heat. Being in an environment somewhat colder than the body makes getting rid of this excess heat easier, and is thus more comfortable. The body's abilities for warming itself are much more sophisticated than its abilities for ...


7

First of all, this observation is the norm across human perception. While humans react in roughly the same way to similar stimuli (e.g. both a cranberry and a tomato are seen as red, the destruction of tissue is felt as painful), the intensity tends to be different. Also, many stimuli elicit not just a knowledge of the state of the world or one's body, but ...


7

Your body requires energy to function. Just like in a powerplant, the energy comes from oxidizing fuel (food, instead of coal or gas). The efficiency Of conversion is rather low, and results in excess heat, which must be rejected to the environment. When it's cool, the heat is easily convected to the surrounding air. When it's warmer, or you're producing ...


7

Another factor at play here is the cardiovascular system. Biro, Masudo, et al (2003) wrote an article about the benefits of the induction of systemic vasodilation for those with congestive heart failure. This may be a short-term adaptation of the body stemming from the reduced ability to sweat in those conditions, or it may be a harbinger of the more ...


4

The blood pH is tightly controlled, since variations of it are quite dangerous for us. Under normal circumstances the pH is 7.4 (with a normal range between 7.35 and 7.45). Below that we are talking about acidosis, above it about alkalosis. If the blood pH goes about 7.8 or below 6.8, death will occur. This pH is maintained by the Bicarbonate-buffering ...


4

In this context, euthyroidism refers to the amount of hormone present. What is a goiter: The term “goiter” simply refers to the abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is important to know that the presence of a goiter does not necessarily mean that the thyroid gland is malfunctioning. A goiter can occur in a gland that is producing too much ...


3

There are two pieces to this question: a) How does bone resorption (movement of Ca/Phos out of bone into the blood) result in net improvement in bone structure? Bones are constantly remodeling, primarily in response to mechanical stressors. Although you clearly already realize this, I will make it explicit: osteoblasts are the cells that create new bone; ...


3

The previous answer isn't quite correct, because, well, blood flow is complicated and the body has autoregulatory mechanisms. As Alex mentioned, vasoconstriction doesn't occur in capillaries because they lack a muscle layer. It does occur in the small arterioles before and after the glomerulus (the afferent and efferent arterioles, respectively). ...


2

From Wikipedia entry on thirst: In the mammalian brain, the posterior surface of the hypothalamus forms the front wall of the third ventricle (a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity) and clusters of cells (osmoreceptors) on this surface, notably in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), signal this ...


2

It may be different for other people, but for me, anything above 32°C (90°F) is very uncomfortable, and my body is inclined to seek cooler temperatures I think you've rather nailed the key point here. I'm going to deduce from your question that you live in a temperate country? Every year, foreign students from India come over to my university in ...


2

Wikipedia has your answer: It seems paradoxical to treat an extreme diuresis with a diuretic, but the thiazide diuretics will decrease distal convoluted tubule reabsorption of sodium and water, thereby causing diuresis. This decreases plasma volume, thus lowering GFR [glomerular filtration rate] and enhancing the absorption of sodium and water in the ...


2

Endotherms also called warm blooded animals have the ability to regulate their body temperature by themselves. If the endotherms are in a cold place their body increases the metabolism and generates more heat. This will compensate for the cold outside. In a hot region the body metabolism is tuned down (this is not as efficient as the adaptation to cold ...


2

I contacted Richard Pillans, the primary author of the article linked to in the question. He told me that he did not know whether the rectal gland was reduced. Researchers are hesitant to capture and dissect the freshwater sharks because of their endangered status.   He did tell me that they have gathered much more data on the movement of the sharks since ...


1

If you supply heat to a system, the entropy increases which results in destabilization of order. This is a general thermodynamic principle and you can refer any basic book on that topic. However, it is not essential that all molecules would be affected equally. There are heat-stable enzymes in thermophiles such as Thermus aquaticus which are resistant to ...


1

I think you're referring to radio frequency or microwave ablation. It works by heating the tissues up with electromagnetic radiation, just like you'd use to microwave food, but it's heating you instead. Healthy cells have better repair mechanisms and survive these treatments better. Cancer cells tend to have poor repair ability and can be killed more easily. ...


1

Weasels don't hibernate. See http://icwdm.org/handbook/carnivor/Weasels.asp Both will die when the temperature falls below a certain level. The difference between snakes (ectotherms) and weasels (endotherms) is that the snake's body temperature will fluctuate more, depending on the surrounding temperature.


1

Short Answer: There was an interesting paper that dealt with the pH of urine when citric acid was consumed. The summary was: There was no increase in urinary pH or total nitrogen in 24 hours collection of urine. What This Means: The food we take does not affect the blood pH directly. Acidic food will cause increased secretion of alkaline components into ...


1

To my knowledge, capillaries in general and the renal capillaries in glomeruli in particular do not have muscle cells to constrict. The latters have only a basal layer with podocytes lying directly on it (link to the open textbook). Therefore, the vasoconstriction takes place only in arterioles before the glomeruli, and this vasoconstriction leads to the ...



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