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As @canadianer pointed out in the comments section flanking sequence is a sequence that is immediately near the target on either side. Since chimps and humans are closely related and the sequence different is minimal (according to this paper its approx 4% for the entire genome) so using human primers is totally fine. Now if take a look at the picture of ...


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Thermo Fisher has a protocol for the separation of host mammalian RNA from prokaryotic RNA, optimized for E. coli vs human, mouse or rat sequences. Capture oligonucleotides bind portions of the mammalian RNA and hybridize. These hybridized oligo/RNA are then removed from solution via "oligonucleotide-derivatized magnetic beads," after which the remaining RNA ...


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A 'good' phylogenetic tree would be completely refined, properly binary, have high bootstrap support for all its branches, and reconstruct clades we think exist with high support values. Generally high support values(there are other methods besides bootstrapping but that is a question for another time) is a measure of a good tree. There are other concerns, ...


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I assume these are all carcinogenic mutations. Because some them are clearly recessive loss-of-function mutations (like loss of transcript), you can conclude that the function of the gene consists of "holding back cancer". When these mutations occur, they can generally be complemented by a healthy allele on the sister chromosome. Oncogenes on the other ...


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After opsonization the antigen goes through phagocytosis or the complement system destroys it. The complement is a cascade of reactions, which at the end creates a hole (many holes) on the membrane of bacteria which causes lysis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complement_membrane_attack_complex So the right answer is d.) in your case.


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As you can simply find on Wikipedia, the cellular immunity, or Cell-mediated immunity, is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. The answer (c) (destroying the bacteria cell by ...


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If you have genomic imprinting then $k^n=m^2$ (with k=m and n=2 because of diploidy) is correct as inheriting a from the father and b from the mother (i.e. ab) is not equivalent to inheriting b from the father and a from the mother (i.e. ba). For 3 alleles (a,b,c) you have 9 possible genotypes (aa,ab,ac,ba,bb,bc,ca,cb,cc). Under no genomic imprinting, ab ...


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A: wild-type allele / a: color blind allele Because color blindness is recessive and X-linked your assumption $p=F(a)=4\%$ is correct as men do only have one copy of the allele. Subsequently $F(A)=q=1-p=0.96$ is also correct. Therefore: a) $F(Aa)=2pq=7.68\%$ is correct and b) is wrong, a is the color blind allele and $F(a)=0.04$ therefore it's ...


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Centi-Morgan (cM) is based on observation not precise measurements. Now since double crossing-overs (and actually any arbitrary even number of crossing-overs) revert gene combination to the parental type, resulting lower recombinant frequency. So in your case since the chance (or the frequency if you wish) for double COs is 0.6%, you have to subtract this ...


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The critical element here is that building materials that need to be absorbed, or waste materials that need excretion have to cross the cell membrane. The larger the surface of the cell's membrane relative to its volume, the faster the exchange rate. The book section you linked in the comments mentions the following on p.14: The volume [of a spherical ...


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Agree with the answer by @A.Kennard. Here's a punnet square to clarify your answer further.


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Your classmate is forgetting that the child will have to inherit one allele (A or a) from each parent. Suppose the dad is affected---so his genotype is Aa. He has a 50% chance of passing the A on to his kid. That means the kid has a 50% chance of being affected. If your classmate was right, then it would be possible for both the kid's alleles to come from ...


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Short answer Adverse stimuli in general are accompanied by contraction of facial muscles. It is part of our repertoire of emotional expressions. Background A disgusted expression and the expression of pain are both accompanied by squinting. Disgusting stimuli include your example of a sour taste, but also include other adverse tastes (bitter) or visual ...



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