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Humans can, to some extent, be scaled: While most humans are two meters tall; the human body essentially works throughout the entire range from around a meter to around two and a half meters, although you tend to run into problems at the extremes. However, outside of that range you run into the tyranny of the square-cube law: As you scale a creature (or, ...


5

As @WYSIWYG pointed, muscular atrophy is the main cause for height decrease. A spine injury leads to neural impairment and paresis / paralysis. This affects directly muscular trophism. It also limits physical activity, this being another favoring factor for muscular atrophy and overweight issues [1]. Association of bone degenerative processes (osteoporosis, ...


4

This looks like a misinterpretation. Because collarbone is the only horizontal long bone of the human body [1], it is the first to fracture when falling on the shoulder. Its fracture can affect many structures: The muscles involved in clavicle fractures include the deltoid, trapezius, subclavius, sternocleidomastoid, sternohyoid and pectoralis major ...


3

The liver does quite a lot of "housekeeping". It is responsible for a lot of energy metabolism: Gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose), Glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen into glucose), Glycogenesis (the synthesis of glycogen from glucose). It is important for protein degradation as well as for amino acid synthesis, as well as in the lipid ...


3

It isn't just humans that have fused sacral vertebrae. Animals on the phylogenetic tree ranging from Squamata (lizards), to Aves (birds), to even Monotremata (egg-laying mammals) all have fused sacral vertebrae. The fused vertebrae can serve as a stronger, weight-baring structures for animals that do land locomotion, including humans. Any bones that have ...


2

If you look at urological sites for female-to-male reconstructive surgery the procedures often involve significant skin/tissue grafts and/or prostheses. See, e.g. this interesting and somewhat graphic site. Penis enlargement (see this site) for cosmetic purposes often entails less drastic measures, such as detaching the ligaments that keep part of the shaft ...


2

There are two levels to take your question at. The first is simpler but I'm not sure if it is what you are looking for: If you imagine the heart and all the blood vessels in your body as a closed plumbing system with no leaks (not entirely accurate) then when the heart contracts and squeezes the blood from the ventricles the total surface area the blood is ...


2

The best way to ensure you're getting an accurate skull, near as I can tell, is striking the "model" part of your question, and go straight for a real skull. A cursory search revealed, for instance, Skulls Unlimited International, The Bone Room, and The Evolution Store although other providers probably exist as well. A regulatory board for model skulls ...



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