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I think the problem you're having is in the way you're thinking that all contracted muscle shortens, and all relaxed muscle lengthens. But the cilia is different. The ciliary muscle is a circular or radial muscle (like the orbicularis oris of the mouth.) Thinking of it like a sphincter muscle is much more helpful. The ciliary muscle is attached at its ...


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Antibodies are a unique case. I recommend reading PubMedID: 26726925 regarding the pharmacokinetics of ranibizumab (Lucentis), a Fab fragment, after intravitreal administration. "We assume that the principal pathway for the ocular clearance of large molecules is by a first-order transfer process from the vitreous to the aqueous chambers, from which the ...


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Genetic basis of height The genetic variants analysed by Wood et al. (2014) account for ~29% of the phenotypic variance and 60% of the heritability of height. Due to this high heritabilty (and the fact that there are still expected to be more unknown variants affecting height) there most likely is a genetic reason explaining the difference of height in ...



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