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6

The muscle spindle normally stretches/contracts in concert with the muscle fibres in order to maintain detection of changes in length. This image should demonstrate it clearly: When the muscle spindle is stretched and excited it sends impulses to the spinal cord more rapidly (increased frequency). The sensory neurons synapse with alpha motor neurons ...


4

Short answer(s) Someone with a damaged larynx may still speak with the use of a speech aid (electronic larynx). The ability to understand speech does not necessarily mean one can speak normally. There are neurological disorders where folks can understand speech, but have difficulty producing it. Background A full removal of the larynx (laryngectomy) ...


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This doesn't really answer the question and I only post it at the asker's request. NASA has measured the dimensions of the back in 40 year old American males and 40 year old Japanese females in the year 2000 at 1G. Of course gravity matters to NASA… From figure 3.3.1.3-1 (American male). All data in centimetres: 921 Waist back 5th percentile: 43.7 ...


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Short answer Given your comments you are referring to the cause of fainting after being triggered by certain stressors. The reason is a sudden drop in blood pressure due to parasympathetic nervous system activation (vagus nerve activity). This leads to reduced blood flow to your brain, which results in a brief loss of consciousness (Mayo Clinic). Background ...


2

You can whisper without a larynx. "Patients who have undergone partial or full laryngectomy are typically unable to speak anything more than hoarse whispers, without the aid of prostheses or specialized speaking techniques." (source) So the remainder of the vocal tract is capable of enough modulation to present typical human speech in many languages. I ...


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Speech is generated by generating a frequency spectrum with the vocal folds, and then filtering it with the upper vocal tract. Whistling is done by blowing air over shaped tongue and lips. So, give someone a laryngectomy. They still retain the upper vocal tract (and so can still whistle), but they cannot generate the source vibrations to speak. Do it as ...



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