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From an engineering point of view, if you chew it the surface area will be enlarged. For example, you take 2 containers with water and 2 tablets which will dissolve in this water. If you crumble one tablet, the take up rate (flux) will be much higher due to the enlarged surface area of the tablet. If you add mixing to the concept, the flux will increase even ...


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The vertebral column is a bony, segmented structure that supports the torso/head and thorax. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs inside the structure of the vertebral column. So - they run together, but are completely separate.


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The article states: Markers (blue stickers, approximately 1 cm in diameter) were attached to a point approximating the suprasternal notch and an intermediate position on the dorsal aspect of the left breast. The position of these markers and the two nipples of the model were extracted from the point cloud scan of the breast model through manual ...


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Based on Figure 11 in the original publication (scale bar = 10 cm): The anteroposterior length of the skull should be about 16.3 cm. I just printed out the figure and did the conversion. So check that your 3D printing software estimates a little over 16 cm for the length from brow ridge to occipital. The full reconstructed skull will be longer of course, ...


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From my research, I can deduce that the cranial volume for males is 560 cm3 (34 cu in) and 465 cm3 (28.4 cu in) for females Note: These skulls are approximately half the volume of modern human skulls average Homo erectus skulls are 900 cm3 (55 cu in) I don't think you would need the area for 3-D printing, but you can use the volume!


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Blood pressure is mostly dependent on the height from the heart. Therefore, if it is below the heart it will have higher blood pressure and if it is above the heart it will have lower blood pressure. Here you are asking from two parts of body that have same height as the heart, so they will have approximately the same blood pressure. For more see: ...


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Although not a biologist, Steven Pinker notes that bilateral symmetry evolved in organisms to allow them to move in a straight line. For a bilaterally symmetrical animal to move, they simply alternate movements between one half of their body and the other. This is true for fish, snakes, insects, mammals, etc. There are exceptions, for instance, flying and ...


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It is, of course, not just mammals, but nearly all animal life is symmetric. Even plants are usually symmetric in some degree. There are exceptions here and there. For example, one interesting exception is that of the fiddler crab which has one claw larger than another. In general, when a single appendage is present on an animal it is nearly always on the ...


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There's really two answers to the question. The first is overall symmetry: mammals, like all tetrapods, are bilaterally symmetric. This comes from a distant common origin with other bilaterally symmetric organisms. Organisms which evolved from this common ancestor often have organs in pairs, probably evolving as a re-use of regulatory genes. The other ...



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