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14

Anything related to mint usually contains menthol. What does it do? It triggers the TRPM8 ion channels, causing your skin's cold receptor to become sensitive, and causing it to overfire. This causes the brain (receiving cold signals from skin) to feel cold, and that's why you feel cold. I have summarised it in a few sentences, but as with any scientific ...


10

Although this question sounds easy to answer in the first place, it is not. The main problem between humans and the apes we are most closely related to is that we have 46 chromosomes, while the apes all have 48. At some point in the evolution of the humans the ancestral chromosomes 2 and 4 fused together to form our chromosome 2, leaving us with only 46 ...


6

Short answer Image blur on the retina is the most important monocular cue for lens accommodation. Background Focussing of an image on the retina is mediated by the lens. Re-shaping of the lens to focus the image on the retina is called accommodation. In general , the main cues for focussing are retinal disparity and blur, and to a lesser extent proximal ...


4

The word density in the medical term bone density is used to quantify only the mineral content of the bone (bone mineral). It's not intended to describe the total mass density of the bone like we are used to from physics. This is all on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_density Thus, when one say that a Grizzly bear have 10 times the bone ...


4

Your germline DNA remains the same no matter what you do in the growth process (The DNA of a child is the same as the DNA of the adult). What does change is the expression of the DNA (transcriptomic profile), other regulatory factors (Epigenetic modifications), alternative forms of the same DNA expressed differently (splice site variations and alternative ...


4

I don't understand your calculations and I don't understand why you're trying to use Bayes formula. I don't know the $\frac{1-p}{2-p}$ formula and I don't understand what it is supposed to calculate. It seems to me that you're overthinking a simple problem. We don't have all the information and need to make a bunch of assumptions but if I understand the ...


4

Yes, such a conditions exists. It is called "situs inversus" (literally "inverted sites"). All major organs are placed on the opposite site, the condition is relatively rare with an incidence rate of 1:10.000. There are some even rarer forms occuring, when the organs are flipped, but the heart is still on the left side (levocardia) as opposed to the case ...


3

For transcription, the cell uses different signals from start- or stop- codons to determine the start and end of a transcript (see this wiki page). Codons (and hence frameshifts) are only relevant at translation of the mRNA to protein. Frameshift mutations occur in coding sequence, so the promoter and termination signals for transcription are unaffected. ...


3

First of all, for a frame shift mutation to occur nucleotides (not amino acids) are either deleted or inserted into the sequence. Read about details on this wiki page. Here's an image about frame shifts. On panel A a new stop codon is formed (TAG is trasncribed to UAG that is serves as stop codon during translation) thus the result is an abnormally short ...


3

The spicy feeling essentially is the feeling of pain. It is caused by the molecule Capsaicin (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsaicin) binding to the ion channel TRPV1 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRPV1), activating it. You can temporarily get rid of the pain by cooling (as you would with any other injury) - hence the effect of ice. Unfortunately, this ...


3

The blood pressure is the fluid's movement "strength" in the arteries (or "artères", please edit my post with the correct english word) Blood pressure is a measurement of the strength of flow through the arteries. (I.e., the force per unit area exerted by the blood on arterial walls.) So replace vein with artery and your definition is correct. The ...


2

I am a bit confused as to what you are asking. You don't move your arm, like your suggesting, ever. No one does, and no one can. You contract your muscles which happen to move your arm. The movement of the arm is the result of your muscles contracting, not the cause. How it happens is that your brain sends a signal to your muscles (which you cant feel). The ...


2

From the website of Dermatology New Zealand I learned the following: Chilblains are due to the constriction of blood vessels in cold conditions. Cold causes constriction of the small arteries and veins in the skin to reduce heat dissipation. This is normal and temporary in nature. However, rewarming after cold exposure may result in leakage of blood into ...


2

Its down to the structure of your eyes. The eyes are made of rods and cones, which have difefrences in detecting light. Now, compare the images below. As you can probably see, the peripherl vision is predominatlty due to your rods, and your central vision made of cones. Measured density curves for the rods and cones on the retina show an enormous ...


2

Glucose is the only fuel normally used by brain cells. Because neurons cannot store glucose, they depend on the bloodstream to deliver a constant supply of this fuel. Fatty acids do not serve as fuel for the brain, because they are bound to albumin in plasma and so do not traverse the blood-brain barrier. In starvation, ketone bodies generated by the liver ...


2

Often genes or other DNA fragments are inserted into an expression vector and used to transform bacteria or other cells. When a mixture of vectors is used containing various DNA fragments (e.g. a chopped-up genome), then individual (bacterial) colonies need to be isolated to make sure they carry only one insert. This can be done, e.g., by plating the ...


2

No, it wouldn't. In order to understand why, you must understand that Genes are translated independently of one another. The ribosome starts translating at a start codon (ATG) and stops at one of the three stop codons (TAG,TAA and TGA). Whether another gene has a frameshift mutation or not, does not affect the current gene in any way. The ribosome will ...


1

No not necessarily. Cancer can also be caused by bacteria and viruses in your body The regulation of cancerous tumor development is converged upon by multiple pathways and factors. Besides environmental factors, gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer can be caused by chronic inflammation, which is generally induced by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The ...


1

The reason for the decay are ever evolving bacteria, which happen to be very hard to overcome, even nowdays. There is a lot of research centered towards protein interactions, even mapping whole interactomes, which would help us get rid of decay, yet naturally our system wasn't able to evolve as fast as technological advances, but bacteria did.


1

National censuses are collected, published and disseminated primarily by each country's census or national statistical office (NSO) or its equivalent. Census data are published in each country's vernacular, and as appropriate, many offer English as well as other language versions. Statistical offices of international agencies (e.g. United Nations, ...


1

Short answer: Due to habituation. You do something enough number of times, then that event ceases to be something new, and your body adapts to it. In this case, you train your body to accept more risks allowing greater lengthening, before it begins to internally signal the muscles that an injury is incoming. Read below for the slightly longer version: ...


1

I am not an ENT doctor, but I think the following diagnoses would suffice to determine each of the conditions: Blocked Eustachian tube: Complaints would be of sudden onset and likely associated with a common cold, or ear infection. Providing the patient with standard decongestant should provide quick relief. Ruptured eardrum: Patient should have subtle ...



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