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10

Goblet cells. These are specialized epithelial cells whose job it is to produce mucins. Mucous role is not only important in protecting the epithelium of the digestive tract from HCl, it is also a very important substance in the innate immune system, acting as a barrier defense to trap pathogens and/or prevent them from breaching the epithelium and gaining ...


6

Electrical currents stimulate neurons aspecifically. For example, the BrainPort artificial vision device conveys information through electrical stimuluation of the tongue. Similarly, cochlear implants and retinal implants convey information through electrical stimulation of the inner ear and retina, respectively. The list goes on. Bottom line is, none of ...


6

Sugar (be it sucrose, glucose, fructose or honey) does not have emetic properties in any concentration, unless there is a personal (and highly individual) psychological adverse reaction to sweet substances. Sugar is not a local gastric irritant (like dishwashing detergent, or syrup of ipecac, copper sulphate, zinc sulphate; yellow mercuric sulphate, ...


5

The most accurate method known so far may be Horvath's methylation dating algorithm, which uses 353 CpG sites (Genome Biology research article, Nature news article). From the Nature article, this method was validated with at least one population. [After the publication in Genome Biology] Marco Boks at the University Medical Centre Utrecht in the ...


3

If you are performing the fast for ritualistic or spiritual purposes, then that mental state likely overcomes the feeling of thirst or hunger, especially if you are an otherwise healthy person. As for the physiological aspects. The Human Body is made up of 2/3 water, and as your kidneys are still functional, they are constantly filtering, and creating ...


3

The standard protocol for treating a healthcare worker that accidentally comes in contact with HIV infected body fluid is to receive HAART treatment. HAART is an acronym that stands for Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy, and is a multi-drug cocktail that acts on a number of pathways to block the HIV virus from replicating. There are early inhibitors ...


3

Our stomachs are lined with a special mucal layer which protects the organ from its own secretions. People with stomach ulcers have a hole in this layer, allowing the acid to get to the skin underneath. HCl is present in our stomach to aid digestion - especially with dismantaling the bolus (food) coming from the oesophagus. The HCl separates the larger bolus ...


3

You have made an incorrect assumption-- that all the genes on both chromosomes necessarily remain intact. It's possible that they do, and the the translocation is harmless. But the transition point could be within a gene. This would usually lead to that copy of the gene becoming inactive, which can cause diseases just like any other loss-of-function ...


3

In the Down syndrom typically, the translocation does not induce (usually; see later) any disease. We call someone carrying the translocation a "balanced carrier". The problem arises after, at the moment of segregation. When balanced carriers reproduce Consider someone who has a translocation as you showed. You showed only one chromosome of each types ...


3

In order to keep the hair from decomposing, my first assumption is you'd need it in an environment that inhibits decomposers, e.g. dry. We can see in the mummification process that hair may be preserved for hundreds of years. Hair is also composed largely of keratin, however, and in my own search of the literature: (1) we need microbial (bacteria, fungi) ...


2

How long human egg cell grow up until sperm fuse it? Ovules are made while the female is still in the uterus of her mother. The ovules (in the form of ovarian follicles) are kept in the ovaries for a long time, and just a month before leaving the ovary (ovulation), the ovarian follicle (and the future ovule) gain in size. In other words, the ovules are ...


2

Simply, it's because of the mucous layer around the stomach, that prevents the strong acid, Hcl to hurt our stomach. Not only this, if there were no mucous, the Hcl would digest the protein present in the epithelial cells, so the stomach itself would get digested. So the main protagonist here is the mucous layer.


2

What you describe could have happened under the right conditions. However, there are a few things you haven't considered. Because humans are especially altricial, always having twins would double the cost of children on parents. The benefit of sexual reproduction is immune diversity. So a population like this could be far more vulnerable to disease. So ...


1

AMR's answer is excellent and deserves praise. I only want to add that, scientifically (NOT therapeutically) there may be other ways to prevent infection. A Nature letter from 2012 examined the role migratory T-cells play in HIV infection. They used a drug, FTY720, also known as fingolimod, which essentially kept lymphocytes from moving out of lymph nodes. ...


1

I think your supervisor wants to see if there is inter-cellular variation in the repeat length and if so, calculate the variation. This may be compared with inter-tissue or inter-individual variation. Usually when you take a pool of cells for any assay, you would average out the properties of individual cells. Using sequencing you may actually be able to ...


1

I don't think this is a complete answer, but I know that historically hair, like horse tail has been used as a part of armor, because it is flexible and difficult to cut through (see dragoon helmet picture). Protection could be one of the primary purposes of facial hair in human males, who are more likely to experience aggression or be hunters.


1

The human body can last several days without food and (to a lesser degree) water, and often had to. I myself and certainly many others have not had to experience that tho, as modern Western society has pretty good countermeasures against this. After 24 hours, your body has still sufficient amounts of water, unless it was dehydrated earlier already. Contrary ...


1

As is stated in this article by Hiller-Sturmhöfel and Swartzwelder from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, there are ethical issues surrounding research on human subjects that preclude direct testing, however studies in model mammals and observational studies do find that "adolescence is a unique stage of brain development which is ...


1

Answer While itching and pain are related, research indicates that these sensations are caused by distinct nociceptors. Essentially, wounds itch because histamine is released as part of the wound healing process, and histamine activates those itch nociceptors. So perhaps the more apt question is just "why does histamine cause itching?" (See also answer to ...


1

Yes, people can definitely grow taller than their parents. Height is a polygenic quantitative trait (so affected by many genes), that is also strongly affected by environmental factors. You are also forgetting that there is a sex difference in height (~14 cm, Wright & Cheetham, 1999), so the height of the mother does for instance not set an absolute cap ...



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