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4

So if you're reading the flowchart, understanding the notation of the arrows is important: We have rectangles around the gene products There's a circle, denoted by DNA, noting that the proteins are expressing the product that follows through interaction with DNA The solid line with an arrowhead means there's some sort of interaction The solid line with the ...


2

Pathways in biology are very hard to interpret without being an expert in the subject. Here a link to The Standard Graphical Notation for Biological Networks that might help you understanding the notation used. Pathway are generally based on evidences of links between the players. These links do not require to be found using one particular technique. Those ...


0

Memories are not stored in just one part of the brain. They are widely distributed throughout the cortex and neurons. The long-term memories are stored throughout the brain as groups of neurons, the brain stores memories in three ways--Short-term memories, Sensory memory and Long-term memory the human brain cell can hold 5 times as much of information as ...


0

Stress is the reaction, which our body reacts against the pressure or tension. There are many impact of stress on the human body, which includes Emotional: Moodiness, short temper, agitation, inability to relax, feeling lonely and always depressed. Cognitive: Memory problems, unable to concentrate, very poor judgment, negative thoughts, always anxious ...


1

So, when they subjected "ready to drink" beetroot juice to thermal pasteurization, they found the betacyanin and betaxanthin (our major antioxidants, and pigment molecules) content to be 39.9 and 42.28% degraded, respectively (1). Their conclusion was as follows: Standardization of process condition and quality degradation of beetroot juice due to ...


3

Could it be beneficial to artificially induce fever in a person who has an illness if they are not already experiencing fever? No, not really. Pretty much the only use of hyperthermia in medicine is in the treatment of cancer. If you google "use of hyperthermia in medical treatment", you'll likely only find two kinds of hits: those for cancer treatment ...


0

I have to challenge both ideas. First, I learned to swim without any instruction, basically from being pushed into the deep part of the creek by the bigger kids. Of course I got better with practice, but I've never had any sort of formal instruction. Second, not all animals can swim. I have two dogs: one swims like a seal (and has since I got him at ...


0

found on internet: After blood donation, it generally takes a day or two to replenish the fluid volume in the body and three months for the regeneration of red cells to donate more blood. The total amount of blood circulating in our body's cardiovascular system is about 5 liters. Of this amount, only about 350 ml. is bled from the body during blood ...


2

Something I found: Jeffrey S. Dover,Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at Yale University,said the exact reason for fingernails and toenails growth factor defference is still unclear. However, the growth rate of fingernails is indeed nearly 3 times to toenails'. Dover said that when the nails grow old, their growth rate may be slightly slower, but ...


2

My answer below directly (and solely) addresses what I think is the main gist of the question: Are there any adverse effects on one's physiology as a direct result of donating blood? Blood donation, at the amounts typically taken (200~500mls), will not harm you. A healthy human being produces approximately 100,000,000,000 (one hundred billion) NEW ...


4

You might need to narrow your parameters a bit. Just things to consider: Our lungs are not hollow organs that can accommodate an oxygen producing machine. They are basically narrow tubes that get smaller and smaller until they end in a tiny balloon-like structure - about 700 million of them. Where would the machine go? 100% oxygen is toxic to the lungs, ...


1

Actually, hyperthermia is a known treatment for a range of diseases, including cancer. Induced hyperthermia can be whole-body as well as local/regional and is under investigation in multiple studies (for example).


6

Parent 1 and 2 have each 5 possible genotypes (OO, AO, BB, BO and AB). Here a Punnett square with each possibilities. I highlighted the possible parent genotypes. The total number of possible crosses is exactly 21. Note that here A = Ia, B = Ib and O = i. OOxBB,OOxBO,OOxAB AOxBB,AOxBO,AOxAB BBxOO,BBxAO,BBxBB,BBxBO,BBxAB BOxOO,BOxBB,BOxAO,BOxBO,BOxAB ...


-1

Yawning increases pressure in eustachian tube because it takes place during inspiratory phase of respiration, so pushes Ear drum on the outer side


1

The two main chemical processes in the human body that generate carbon dioxide (CO2) are: Basal metabolic process of CO2 (CO2m) produced by the combustion of sugar in organs and tissues of the body. Bacterial decay processes occurring as a result of activity of the microbial fauna in the colon. This forms CO2 (CO2c), H2, CH4 and higher hydrocarbons, NH3, ...


0

The organism as a thermodynamic machine does need a coolant. The more difference in temperature the more efficiently thermal machine can use energy. Also in all processes in organism it is produced excessive thermal energy, which should be removed. Thus colder water and air are pleasant.


3

Short answer: Cold is pleasant only when your are not already freezing and cold might satiate thirst better because it acts as enhancer of the "water intake flow meter". Is cold water more tasty than warm water? No, it is actually the reverse as detailed in my footnote. Cold is pleasant when your body is over-heating and definitely not if you live naked ...


6

The muscle spindle normally stretches/contracts in concert with the muscle fibres in order to maintain detection of changes in length. This image should demonstrate it clearly: When the muscle spindle is stretched and excited it sends impulses to the spinal cord more rapidly (increased frequency). The sensory neurons synapse with alpha motor neurons ...


2

In addition to cultural preferences and psychological factors, there may be some evolutionary basis in this. Cooking food is a relatively new development and unique to the Homo spp. line. It makes sense that the tongue/mouth may be more sensitive to cooler temperatures than warm temperatures, given the amount of actual exposure it is given to sunlight ...


-1

I think our body welcomes cool fluid as it likes to cool it self down. A person who is about to die from cold will never prefer a cool drink however in the same temperature if the person is comfortable he will chose a cool drink then again to cool his body as the body comparatively feels warmer.


2

Short answer Sound localization in the vertical plane should not be affected too much, while localization in the horizontal plane is impaired in unilateral deafness. Background The two most important mechanisms used to localize sounds can be grossly divided into localizing sounds in the horizontal (azimuth) and vertical plane (elevation). In the horizontal ...


5

From what I could gather, there is a decent amount of variability in the ability to detect which direction sound is coming from in unilateral hearing impaired people. It would appear that some people have severely impaired localization skills, akin to someone with an earplug in one ear, but others can use their monaural hearing cues to better locate sound. ...


7

Short answer Color vision is mediated by spike rate modulation (frequency modulation if you like), as well as ganglion-cell specific stimulation. Background Ganglion cells exist that transmit opponent colors. The color opponency model predicts that we cannot perceive a greenish-red or yellowish blue, which is quite right. We can, however, see ...


4

Addition to the previous answer First you need to understand how radiation causes cellular damage. EM waves like γ-rays, X-rays and high-energy UV (in certain molecules even visible light) can knock out the electrons from the atom and create an ion and free radicals by breaking chemical bonds. This term — ionizing radiation is not used for low energy UV ...


2

Afaik. radio waves don't have enough energy to cause anything similar to the damage ionizing radiation (gamma rays) does. What it can cause is probably heat damage similar to microwave ovens. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, a U.S. Federal Standard limits the amount of microwaves ...


6

Citing your source would help to answer. In order to test an elastic modulus, you need to apply some non-zero strain. If the strain is infinitesimal, then compression and stretch modulus will be equal. But if it is finite, then there can be a difference due to the structure of the material. In bone, I believe porosity will provide most of the dissymetry ...


7

Risperidone prevents dopamine from acting on the pituitary gland by blocking dopamine type 2 receptors. One of dopamine's effects on the pituitary is to suppress prolactin production. In patients taking risperidone, prolactin production thus increases and prolactin levels in the body are higher than normal. In younger males, this can result in abnormal ...


2

The lines on the hand are known as flexion creases, and they exist because in their absence, the skin will stretch outwards when the palm is closed due to the decreased surface area of the closed palm, causing problems with gripping. Developmental disorders such as Down Syndrome often cause there to be only one palm line, known as the simian crease, as ...


0

The other day I was reading "Sleep soundly every night,feeling fantastic everyday" by Robert S. Rosenberg. Somewhere in the books it was written as: "Sound: You need your bedroom to not only be cool and dark, but also quiet. If a dripping faucet or the barking of a neighbor’s dog is interfering with your sleep, try earplugs, earphones, or generating white or ...


0

So let's just quickly define what cadherins are, using general information from wikipedia, Source: Wikipedia Cells express E-cadherin (epithelial), N-cadherin (neuronal, or P-cadherin (placental). These generally interact with ß-catenins to modulate cell adhesion. There are pathways intrinsic to cancer which downregulate the expression of cadherins, ...


4

In Ascherio & Willen (1997) it is mentioned that, and I quote: [...] Trans fatty acids increase plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduce concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol relative to the parent natural fat. [...] [T]rans fatty acids increased the plasma ratio of total to HDL ...


6

The human skin is indeed made off a number of different layers, the three most important are epidermis, dermis and hypodermis (also called subcutaneous fat), see the figure (from here) for details: All three layers can be subcategorized further, I'll only give a few details here. More can be found for example in the Wikipedia article on skin. Epidermis: ...



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