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Alongside full guidance released by NICE they also produce treatment pathways which give further advice - here is the treatment pathway for hypertension. You've listed most of the investigations that would be considered in your original question. Investigations that may be considered as appropriate include: Urine dipping for proteinuria or haematuria ...


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Spironolactone works through a mechanism different than the adrenergics. You said of the ABC approach, "This includes also diuretics." That's why Spironolactone was included. Spironolactone is a specific pharmacologic antagonist of aldosterone, acting primarily through competitive binding of receptors at the aldosterone-dependent sodium-potassium exchange ...


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This actually depends on how your tap water is warmed. If you have a personal water heater, which is connected to your tap with non-corrodable pipes, then there is essentially no difference. However, if the heating comes from a common source, then it would be very difficult to verify that the heater-tap connection does not contain any corrodable pipes. In ...


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The reason for this worry is chemical--as water warms up, more contaminants can dissolve in the water. With water pipes specifically, people worry about lead contamination. Modern pipes are not as likely to corrode (or even be made of lead) as old pipes, so this is more of a concern in older buildings. See this NYT article for more information.


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Reverse signals (dendrite -> axon) do occur in neurons, and are called back propagating action potentials (bAPs). However, whatever role bAPs play in the nervous system at large is subtle/small enough that we don't really understand them at all. In any case, as @luigi points out, pinched nerves don't have anything to do with bAPs. The reason why a pinch in ...


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According to the post you linked, paresthesia causes the "falling asleep" notion. According to Wikipedia, there are two types of paresthesia, transient and chronic. Transient paresthesia is the type you are describing. Paresthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The most common, everyday cause is temporary restriction ...


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This paper, while mainly dealing with chronic nerve compression, appears to explain the effects of nerve compression on the blocking the transmission of neural impulses (causing the "sleeping limb" syndrome). This paper describes how the application of pressure on a nerve causes a miniature case of compartment syndrome, where the pressure causes the ...


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The developmental growth of bone tissue is hormonally controlled. It is, as far as I know, not under direct neuronal control. Before reaching adolescence, the long bones (mainly in the arms and legs) grow in the epiphyseal plate, the area of the bone where cartilage is formed and ossified on the diaphyseal side, thereby lengthening the bone. The longitudinal ...


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Interesting question! There has been at least one study that bypassed a spinal lesion site with autografted neuronal tissue (Tadie et al., 2004 - doi:10.1089/089771502320317069). The study participant regained voluntary motor skills 8 months after bypass surgery. The surgery involved the implantation of nerve autografts between the rostral spinal ventral ...


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Paresthesia is defined as the abnormal sensation of the skin, such as numbness, tingling, pricking or burning. Paresthesia is a diverse medical condition and the definitions seems too vague. Most of the books define Paresthesia as a symptom of some other disease. Mostly Paresthesia is categorized as transient or permanent. Paresthesia can arise from several ...


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Poultry raised for meat in the US (called broilers) reach butchering size in 5 to 8 weeks (compared to 10 weeks for half the size 40 years ago. It's not a GH miracle; it's a result of generations of selective breeding (as cows have undergone for unhealthy udder size). GH use is illegal in the US and many other countries. Honestly, it's an unnecessary ...


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Amalgam fillings are made from an alloy. The properties of the chemical elements bound into an alloy are different than the properties of those elements in different forms. The fillings do not release any biologically significant form or biologically significant amount of either silver or mercury. They are essentially inert. Plus silver antibacterial ...


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Skin is safe to chew, and digestible. Fingernails are not digestible, so really shouldn't be swallowed if avoidable. In the medical literature, there are at lease 225 cases of foreign bodies in the appendix. They include: a metal drill bit that was ingested unintentionally 3 months earlier pins (81 cases) lead shot (81 cases) seeds (34 cases) bones (16 ...


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The silver and mercury are heavy metals and absolutely poisonous. However, they are present as amalgam in fillinmgs - an alloy with various constituents including mercury and silver. As such, mercury is not as volatile as it is in its pure elementary form and is basically bound to the rest of the solid-state metals. However, it can still evaporate in small ...


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Embryonic cells "know" where they are relative to each other by chemical signals, same as in adults. These molecules are known as morphogens (specific examples include the sonic hedgehog and β-catenin). The amount of morphogen in a region of cells determines which gene gets turned on and thus what it develops into. And the amount varies by how far they are ...


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I wanted to add some helpful references. The 6th edition of the Gilbert Developmental Biology textbook is available on NCBI bookshelf. It's a bit old (2000), but much of the information is still relevant. You can search this textbook for specific terms but not browse. There is also a collaborative science/fashion project between the Storey sisters, called ...


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yea the hox genes are essential for the the specification of the location but the actual growing of the limbs are determined by a series of protein and other factors. proximal limb contains fgf(fibroblast growth factors) wnt(look up wnt pathway) and high levels of retonic acid where distal limbs shows high fgf's high wnt and little to none RA. the sonic the ...


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Hydrophobia is mostly attributed to rabies, most of the sources refer rabies as hydrophobia. Technically Hydrophobia is the intense fear of water. Hydrophobia is an intense, irrational fear of water that can be commonly diagnosed at childhood and should be treated as soon as possible. Certain types of hydrophobia may also appear in later stages of ...


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It is very easy, use google + pathophysiology and read some articles in the actual topic. There are a lot of pathophysiology books as well (some of them pretty expensive). Another way to do an online course. Just a simple search about your example: It is known that AAAs are characterized by destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and ...


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You are correct that hydrophobia is often considered pathognomonic of rabies. However, I offer for your consideration: Hydrophobia as a rare presentation of Cotard's syndrome: a case report.1 Cotard's syndrome itself is a bizarre psychiatric condition that the authors of the above paper define well: Cotard’s syndrome is a rare condition where the ...


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As you noted, the cornea needs oxygen, yet it's not vascular. It needs to get it's oxygen supply from diffusion. In the daytime, diffusion occurs from air through the tear film covering the cornea. The cornea spends about a third of it's lifetime under closed lids. At night, the tear film remains intact and is continuously replenished. The inner aspect of ...


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We already remove old memories (well, more properly unimportant ones) partially in order to make room for new ones There are 3 different levels of storage, but none of them involve an increase of mass. (Distribution of mass, in one sense, but not amount thereof.) I'm not a neuroscientist, but there are one or two lurking around here who can correct anything ...


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Balance is tricky and depends on a lot of things, including, to some degree, your sight. Balance is achieved and maintained by a complex set of sensorimotor control systems that include sensory input from vision (sight), proprioception (touch), and the vestibular system (motion, equilibrium, spatial orientation); integration of that sensory input; and motor ...


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No, it can't be done for a lot of reasons. Here are just a few. 1) Memories are stored in electrical pathways, not the the cells themselves. You don't have 1000 memories in a chunk of brain that contains 1000 neurons. If you don't get the entire pathway, you won't get the memory. 2) Once a nerve is cut, it won't fuse with another cut nerve. All you'll have ...


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Individuals have not only hand dominance but also a dominant foot, eye and ear. There has also been a belief that this sidedness applies to chewing as well. However, the short answer is that no one is sure, but that it may be related to handedness. I only looked at studies done after 2000. One large study[1] found a questionable to weak correlation, not ...


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Via deep scientific analysis (i.e. trying it myself 5 seconds ago), I have determined that you can in fact speak while breathing in, it just sounds funny. Think of the vocal chords as being like the body of a flute. As air passes by them, they vibrate and make sounds. Through careful modulation of their shape, specific sounds can be reproducibly made (this ...


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The following is one of the many elegant statements in General Anesthetic Actions on GABAA Receptors: It is the fervent view of the authors that general anesthesia is no different from any other pharmacological process: exogenously administered drugs interact with key sites on cellular proteins in the body which results directly in the alteration in the ...


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This is a myth which most likely came from methological flaws in the original study. It could never be reproduced. This paper ("Darwin’s Legacy: An Evolutionary View of Women’s Reproductive and Sexual Functioning") deals with it. The interesting part starts from page 30 and says (the references can be ressolved in the article): Critiques of MSH Studies ...


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There are other histocompatibility antigens on the surface of blood cells, e.g. A, B, Rh, etc... (There are probably a lot more which change less by person to person, so they have lower effect on the outcome of blood transfusion.) These antigens can be recognized by immune cells as self, that's why they don't destroy them. Before complete differentiation ...


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Afaik. RA and psoriasis are probably caused by a malfunction of genes which regulate IL-23 production. IL-23 is required for Th17 cells to survive. Th17 cells produce a lot of things which result in inflammation and since TNF-α is a key mediator in inflammation and break down of joints, reducing the amount of available TNF-α reduces the inflammation. (Th17 ...


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In doing search into muscle stem cells, I found some articles which discuss roles of satellite stem cells and non satellite cells involved in muscle regeneration: (Yin, Price and Rudnicki, 2013,Seale and Rudnicki, 2000, and Mitchell et al, 2010). Other articles, that I found discussed the splicing of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) into the satellite ...


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Clonidine is an agonist on the α2 receptor... but then again norepinephrine is also an agonist on the α2 receptor. Then the physiologic ligand of the a2 receptor, norepinephrine is autocrine (meaning it is released from a cell then binds on a receptor on the same cell) causing negative feed back and it inhibits further release of norepinephrine from the ...


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Pyridostigmine is an analog of neostigmine, so has the same basic mechanism of action. Please forgive me for repeating information you may already know. There are two main families of acetylcholine receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic. Acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are exclusively nicotinic (N1 or NM), so that's the only ...


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Renin angiotensin is for regaining homeostasis. If you have lost salts, blood pressure and blood volume will decrease due to loss of fluids. But the renin angiotensin mechanism will try to undo this by stimulating uptake of Na+ and water. But still, they can not fully compensate for loss of Na+, INTAKE of Na+ is NECESSARY. By the way, the main stimulus for ...


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Anger is a common emotion in most animals and it is highly related to stress. At time of anger body usually releases stress hormones and the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Anger is an emotional response related to one's psychological interpretation of having been ...


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The need for birth control has been a concept for thousands of years and remains an important issue for men and women today, the need for contraception helped humans to achieve control over our population and healthy sexual relationships without having the fear of pregnancy. The medieval contraception methods mostly relies on plant based oral ...


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Condoms have been around for a long long time. Supposedly, condoms made from such materials as fish bladders, linen sheaths, and animal intestines where in use around 3000 BC (reference). Coitus interruptus was tried before that which may or may not be successful. Infanticide was also practiced where an unwanted child was born in ancient societies ...


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It seems that just a Russian researcher named Dr Alexander Teplyashin has made any progress into using stem cells for LL (Limb lengthening). Conventional way to go about it would always be surgeries which are detailed in Wikipedia (reference). This is a relatively new development, so I could not find any relative publications to support the claim of this ...


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vaccination is injecting the low or non-toxic substances that having a pathogen's identifying characteristics into human or animal body. When the animals exposed to the non-injurious pathogens, the immune system will produce a protective material, such as immune hormones, physiologically active substances and specific antibodies. When the animal re-exposure ...


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I think T cell when presented to antigen (here vaccine) will produce memory T cell, which on next encounter with the same organism may act much faster and efficiently .so i think the correct answer is option D


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Limb lengthening surgery is usually used to treat sequelae caused by bone disease, trauma, pygmyism or inflammation. I personally do not recommend to use surgical methods to increase height. Typically Limb Lengthening requires Achilles pre-lengthening surgery and a lot of postoperative rehabilitation. Moreover, Limb lengthening surgery may cause pain, ...


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Gluten is a protein. The textbook answer is that protein is not stored in fat cells. Proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids through digestion; some amino acids are ketogenic, and can contribute carbon towards fat biosynthesis. So some of the carbon that originates in gluten may be incorporated into a fatty acid. But the carbon has no 'memory' of its ...


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How can you differentiate between effects and side-effects of this adrenoblocker in PubChem? I think PubChem will list all sites (receptors) at which a drug reacts, rather than the preferred sites, which I think is appropriate. The pharmacological properties are listed in Section 8: Pharmacology and Biochemistry: Pharmacology Bisoprolol is a ...


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A vasectomy [...] is a contraceptive procedure in men in which the vas deferens, or sperm duct, is cut and the cut ends are sealed in order to prevent the transportation of sperm. Sperm is still produced, but does not leave the body. Vasectomy is usually done as a means of sterilization and is sometimes reversible. (from ...


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Unfortunately overlaying all of this is a social aspect that is difficult to eliminate. Virtually any male researcher into this topic has a vested interest in vindicating his own penile condition. Men feel strongly about the perfection of their own penises, however they find them. It is very clear from the discussion and tone of many of these studies that ...


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Questions of the type, "why does organism X have feature A?" invite teleological (just so) explanations which are difficult to substantiate. For example, the number of teats on a cow are difficult to explain in terms of providing milk to humans! We should look to evolutionary history to explain human traits, not "just so" stories. The simple answer is that ...


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Hair does not grow back thicker when it is cut. This is somewhat of an optical illusion because when you shave with a razor it leaves the top of the hair flat rather than pointed so it appears thicker. For instance see this picture: As you can see the hair is tapered at the top and when cut loses this taper to leave a large cross-sectional area. I would ...


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Your pet dog needs more than two nipples because she can have up to 11 or more puppies. If she had two nipples, most of them sound starve. Twins are rare enough in humans. Two nipples are fine, and fit with bilateral symmetry. All primates have two nipples. So do many animals with one, two, and rarely three offspring at a time. Elephants: 2 teats, 1 calf ...


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That conversation is strange. While different tables exist, the very first elements seem messed up. If the body is 60 (some sources say 70)% water, then oxygen has to be the most abundant element by weight (water - H2O - has a molecular weight of ~18 g/mol, with hydrogen contributing only 2g/mol of that weight). The usual figures are roughly Oxygen (65%), ...


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I can't check the sources, but I think they must estimate the relative energy of a threshold-sensitivity signal. I don't think the energy of a sound wave can be assigned an arbitrary value the way a photon can...certainly only a photon can propagate in a vacuum... Both light and sound waves scatter less, as they propagate, if they're higher ...



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