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Iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. The color of the iris gives the eye its color. In optical terms, the pupil is the eye's aperture and the iris is the diaphragm that serves as the aperture stop. Color and structure of ...


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Afaik. RA and psoriasis are probably caused by a malfunction of genes which regulate IL-23 production. IL-23 is required for Th17 cells to survive. Th17 cells produce a lot of things which result in inflammation and since TNF-α is a key mediator in inflammation and break down of joints, reducing the amount of available TNF-α reduces the inflammation. (Th17 ...


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Cloning of animals typically involves: Taking nucleus from healthy adult cell of animal to clone Taking a healthy egg and replace the egg's nucleus with nucleus from source animal. Implanting egg in female, stimulating the pregnancy process. This same process should work on humans BUT: "Is it really possible to create humans in lab?" No. Animal cloning ...


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If you with 'humans' refer to our genus Homo (which is often the case), we do have multiple species, see wikipedia for an overview. The difference to many other organism groups is just that all species except Homo sapiens are extinct. Also, taxonomic ranks below the species level - such as breed, subspecies, population and race - are very poorly definined ...


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Humans are a species and within our species we, arguably, have races. Although the term 'race' is highly controversial and ill-defined, as pointed out by @fileunderwater in his elegant answer, I just want to express that races can be, in a way, compared to breeds and hence that the human species does have some of the species-subdivisions you are addressing. ...



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