Tag Info

New answers tagged

0

An antigen can be any molecule, macromolecule, virus particle, or cell that contains a structure recognized and bound by an immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor (Parham, 2009). The secondary or adaptive immune system responds to potential pathogens through antigen-binding sites. These can be on immunoglobulins produced by B cells and circulating in the body, or ...


1

@zeller The better answers are being sought in a field called Regenerative Medicine. A number of techniques have been tried, among them 3D printing of organs and dissolving the cells from a donor organ leaving the collagen scaffolding, then reseeding the organ with a patients stem cells in a bioreactor. Most of these technologies, unfortunately, are in ...


1

The human genome is 3 billion letters long. Most of that sequence has nothing to do with tissue rejection. Only a handful of genes relate to tissue rejection, so those are what one might want to sequence, but even having the sequence doesn't necessarily tell you how the proteins are shaped, and it's protein shape that determines how they interact with each ...


2

The process you are asking about is called the termination of the immune response, and for a long time it was not studied very much for some reason, with scientists preferring to analyze initiation instead. However, this has changed in recent years, and while we still don't know a good deal, the picture is much clearer than it had been a decade or three ago. ...


2

Upstream means towards 5' direction from the reference point (conversely for downstream). Reference point can be a single position such as transcription start site (TSS) or a bigger segment such as a gene. When we say upstream of a gene, it means some region of DNA that is towards 5' direction from the TSS of the reference gene. Downstream of a gene refers ...


2

I am surprised Janeway's Immunobiology is not listed here: Murphy K. Janeway's Immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science; 2011. It is very comprehensive, accessible and goes beyond any graduate course I know. Most immunology researchers I know have a copy of this handy somewhere in their office. A particular highlight are the very clear ...


1

Cross-immunoreactivity is just as you stated where an antibody that is specific to one antigen may recognize another antigen. I don't think this term is widely used as I see cross-reactive or broadly reactive more often. With regards to vaccines against viruses, cross-reactive immune responses are very important to establish an immune response that is ...


6

Posted due to certain inaccuracies in comments and answers provided to this question regarding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It should be noted that while it may not affect the ability for macrophages in the dermis to phagocytose the heavy metals found in the inks used in tattooing, and thus not interfere with the fixing of a tattoo in an HIV+ person, ...


4

Short answer People with HIV can get tattoos. Background In Africa there are countries that tattoo people identified with HIV (Source: Kenya Today) and some people with HIV find comfort in tattooing biohazard symbols and related images on themselves to express their illness (Source: CNN). However, as rightly mentioned by @AMR, macrophages which are ...


0

Great question and in part, you are correct. However, you must also remember that this greatly depends on what genes have undergone mutation. In the case of cancer, it's usually either a gene that regulates cell proliferation rates, induces programmed cell death or helps to repair damaged DNA. When one (or all) of these genes is mutated, the cell ...


4

This is a good question and it gets to the most basic foundations of immunology. Your immune system is made to be flexible - able to adapt to almost any challenge. However, with so much flexibility comes the potential to generate immune cells that react against the 'self'. So, at the other extreme, the immune system needs to be limited. In order to meet ...


2

The original question asks about vaccine development against a virus. Most effective anti-viral vaccines elicit antibody responses that presumably protect via neutralization of viruses as they enter the body. Bob Seder has a good review on this - you may find a discussion relevant to this topic in the section titled "Viral targets for the induction of ...


1

I agree that this question may be broader than a simple half-life question in theory, however, I think that it is still basically a half-life question. For instance, does the presence of the virus (using the flu example) contribute to opsionization and clearance? Possibly, but this would be variable and difficult to generalize about. The question has been ...


0

In immunology, determinant is another name for epitope (the portion of an antigen recognized by a BCR/Ab or TCR).


0

Blood group A expresses A antigens and anti-B antibodies etc etc, see the next figure: Taken from the wikipedia entry on blood groups.


1

Any one Plasma Cell that is producing antibody is making one kind of Heavy Chain and one Light Chain. In an IgG, there are two heavy chains each associated with a light chain. Together, a heavy and light chain have one epitope binding region - so in toto, an IgG is multivalent because each heavy chain : light pair can bind a single epitope for a total of ...


0

Another reason that secondary antibodies are used is to look for the production of antibodies by a test animal. Follow me for a second with an example that I think will make it clear. Our Purpose: We have identified a protein (call it 'V_Entry') that is vital for Ebola to infect human cells. We wonder if antibodies against V_Entry will block Ebola ...


2

This is a great question, Jamie. And Chris gave an excellent answer above, describing how antibodies go through 'germinal center reactions' that improve the affinity of responding cells. However, Jamie actually brings up several concepts that are worth discussing and there is another important element to the immune response that Chris touches on, but could ...



Top 50 recent answers are included