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According to this paper (Yoav Soen et al. PLoS Biology 2003), peptide:MHC microarrays are a type of cellular microarray (a microarray designed to identify cell types; Wikipedia). These microarrays have attached a MHC molecule bound to a peptide, which allows them to work as artificial antigen presenting cells (APCs) that activate specific subpopulations of T ...


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hTAP refers to human TAP protein (reference). And how do you know that TAP refers to Transfer Associated Protein? I believe it stands for Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (reference). Your facts are wrong which is why your question couldn't be answered.


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An expression vector is a (usually circular) piece of DNA which is able to replicate inside a (bacterial) cell independently of the genome. Vectors can be transferred between bacteria and can express proteins from their own DNA sequence. They are used to express proteins inside of bacterial cells which can subsequently be purified. In this case the sequence ...


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These questions are not completely easy to answer, since the immune reaction in this area is not completely understood. There are two different mechanisms which play a role here: Semen is immunogenic and can cause the generation of specific antibodies against it in men and women. The main question here is if the presence of semen in the females ...


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A haplotype is commonly defined as ...a group of genes within an organism that was inherited together from a single parent. -- Nature Scitable This definition of haplotype applies whether it is just a few genes or all of the genes on an entire chromosome$^1$. In the case of the major histocompatibility complex, it is a group of more than 200 genes on ...


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As stated in wiki "The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface molecules encoded by a large gene family in all vertebrates which controls a major part of the immune system. MHC molecules mediate interactions of leukocytes, also called white blood cells (WBCs), which are immune cells, with other leukocytes or with body cells. MHC ...


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Yes, the difference is "only" in the 3D structure. This makes some differences when proteins change their shape, antibodies which recognize conformational epitopes are usually not well suited for lab work, as proteins are often denaturized here. The different epitopes are also called linear epitopes (for the sequencial) and discontinous epitope (for the ...


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Oxidation does not mean inflammation. But oxidation can be a cause of inflammation. Oxidation processes are part of normal cell metabolism (mostly in mithocondria). They lead to reactive oxygen species ($O_2^-$, $H_2O_2$ and $OH-$) which can trigger inflammation via activation of some transcription factors: NF-κB, AP-1, p53, HIF-1α, PPAR-γ, ...


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With this method you want to identify proteins on cancer cells which are immunogenic so you can use them to boost an immune response against the cancer cells. To do so, you extract the complete mRNA from a cancer. These mRNAs represent all the genes which this cancers expresses (which then also contains the immunogenic proteins). These mRNAs are cloned into ...


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The paratope is the part of an antibody that binds the epitope on the antigen. The CDRs (heavy chain CDRs shown below) are part of the structure of the variable domain, and contain the hypervariable regions that bind to the epitope. The actual paratope is within the hypervariable regions, which are within the CDRs - the paratope is not necessarily made ...


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First, degeneracy in a basic sense refers to redundancy of the codons in the genetic code. For example, the amino acid proline is coded for by one of four codons: CCA, CCC, CCG and CCU. The third codon position (the third letter in each group of three) is called four-fold degenerate because it can change without affecting the coding for proline. ...


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In an RNA microarray, a hybridization event between a probe and target sequence would indicate a presence of the transcript within the sample. The probes are oligonucleotide sequences found on the microarray chip. The target sequences are representative of the entire transcriptome. The targets are found within your biological sample and have gone through ...


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If you have an antigen (something foreign for the immune system, for example a virus or bacteria) this consists of many different epitopes (immunogenic regions), as shown in the figure below (from the German Wikipedia, Antikörper means antibodies). The antigens are taken up by special cells of the immune system and processed to get small peptides: To ...


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I think the reason you are having trouble discerning the statement is because it doesn't really make much sense, nor is it in my opinion sufficiently explained in the paper. The sentences preceding the it give a little explanation as to what the author may be getting at: So far, 1500 allergenic structures have been identified. Online allergen databases ...


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Yes, HIV does attempt to prevent multiple infection of the same cell. Once a T cell or other cells are infected, HIV downregulates the CD4 receptor which it uses to gain entry. Because of this, there are less receptors so another HIV is less likely to infect that cell. Meanwhile, the infection itself upregulates CD4 receptors on other cells which means the ...



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