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The immune system is the most beautiful, complex biological process that operates on a scale that it can be termed as engineering. MHC polymorphism: MHC's have two particular properties that give it flexibility in the face of the antigen: Its polygenicitcy (it contains several different MHC class I and MHC class II genes with different ranges of ...


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For starters, your conception of antigen presentation seems a bit off, but that's not the crux of your question. There's around 10^15 different sequence permutations for a peptide 11-mer. Despite that, it's actually likely that highly conserved regions of some proteins will be present in both the pathogen and the host. T cells will not recognize them, ...


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Magnetic-activated cell sorting (PDF download), or MACS, is a procedure developed by Miltenyi Biotec to separate cells from complex mixtures using antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The antibodies are specific for certain cell surface markers, either expressed on your population of interest (positive selection), or expressed on undesired cell types ...


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As you know CD3 is a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains. In mammals, the complex contains a CD3γ chain, a CD3δ chain, and two CD3ε chains. Natural Killer (NK) cells have been shown to express CD3 epsilon proteins, but not CD3 delta or gamma. Also on a side note, there are several other non peripheral mononucleated cells besides ...


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So the direct mechanisms of norovirus immunity aren't well understood - the shortage of straightforward animal models, and the extreme difficulty in culturing the virus make mechanistic studies really rather hard. A modeling study pegged the duration of immunity at 4.1 to 8.7 years when talking about symptomatic disease, which is much higher than many of ...


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Leukopenia is just a definition. In medicine, there's a saying: Treat the patient, not the numbers. Numbers can mislead people, sometimes quite seriously. Definitions of leukopenia vary: some define it as less than 5,000 WBCs per µL of blood; others define it as less than 4,000. Decreases in specific WBCs is usually described as neutropenia, ...


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I know WBC is primarily responsible for fighting infectious micro-organisms, but does it have any significant role in cleaning up body's own malfunctioning or ageing cells? They kill the pathogens, infected, senescent, mutated or unnecessary cells, clean up the cell fragments, clean up the oxidized LDL from the surface or arteries, etc... So I think ...


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I've found a great article that says: Mitogens and superantigens have been described to explain the strategy used by microorganisms to avoid the host specifc immune responses and to ensure persistence. These moieties are responsible for the initiation of non- specifc (polyclonal) immune responses. Mitogens are chemicals ...



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