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Viruses can infect any cell: a virus must have a host cell (bacteria, plant or animal) in which to live and make more viruses. Outside of a host cell, viruses cannot function. Source This includes the dendritic cells: Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present ...


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I doubt there can be causality in the direction "irritation of skin by allergen" --> "intestinal problems". I have seen several articles where skin prick testing was done on patients, but none of them mentioned intestinal problems as side effects. In rare cases, the skin testing may result in anaphylaxis, which is why it must be done in hospital with the ...


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Afaik the most probable trigger of IBDs (Crohn's, colitis ulcerosa) are changes in the gut microbiota due to western lifestyle (high intake of some nutrients e.g. milk fat). These changes cause an inflammation in the susceptible (genetic factors) people. So the cause of IBDs is very likely not an allergic reaction. According to wikipedia IBS is not an IBD ...


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No, as @GriffinEvo already mentioned, bacteria are one of the main kingdoms of life:                          The Bacteria and Archaea are all unicellular organisms (though there are strange Archea like the Pyrodictium genus that are ...


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No, many unicellular organisms are not bacteria. Examples include (but certainly not limited to); some fungi, chlorella algae, and archaea. Bacteria are one of three domains in the classification of life. You can find more about the bacteria domain at the wikipedia page (It's a long and complex history which is hard to summarise here) and about the domains ...


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To put it another way, suppose that ONLY ONE viable cell of Mycobacterium tuberculosis enters the respiratory system of a healthy human. Will the immune system of that healthy human be able to defeat, on its own, that lone Mycobacterium invading cell? Is the human immune system capable of defeating M. tuberculosis? Yes, for example by ...


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For the generation of Fab-fragments antibodies, (possibly genetically modified) which can be made in large quantities by cells or animals, are used. Antibodies as a whole are not synthesized. The Fab fragment is obtained from antibodies using the enzyme papain, which cleaves the antibody over the disulfide bonds in the hinge region. This results in two Fab ...


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FAbs are genetically engineered and not organically synthesized as such. This PNAS article nicely describes the construction of a phage (virus) library to generate a large amount of different FAbs and screen for FAbs with the wanted epitope (antigen) affinity: http://www.pnas.org/content/95/11/6157.short


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First, when asking about a specific small term, it's best to check your spelling. If you actually look at the sentience, you will note that you left out a very important hyphen: Pellequer compared several propensity scale methods using a dataset of 14 epitope-annotated proteins. [emphasis added] The phrase means that the protein sequences (amino ...


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Cells with low MHC1 or non-recognizable MHC1 are destroyed by NK cells, so e.g. viral infections, intracellular bacterial infections and cancer cells cannot hide with their "abnormal" proteins...


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In short, if a T cell does not find its corresponding MHC 1 complex on a particular cell, its default behavior will be to attack it. Binding to the MHC complex will cause a period of anergy in the bound T cell.



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