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It depends on the strain, but a lot of them are antibiotic resistant and have long latent stages. STIs are typically latent for a long time because transmission is relatively infrequent. The latency makes them hard to defeat because the immune system can't detect the disease until its too late. ...


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Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder where autoreactive attack on the actual thyroid tissue results in hypothyroidism. Pyzik et al., 2015, provides a good review of what we know about HT. The prevailing theory is that nonspecific infection can induce HLA expression on thyroid cells through the action of interferon gamma. HLA is an ...


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If you want a shorter version, but with some key terminology in there, here you go: When the body is exposed to an antigen (a substance that stimulates an immune response), antigen-presenting cells (e.g. macrophages) engulf them and present them on the surface of their cell membrane. Then, T cells bind to it and in short, they eventually get activated. Then ...


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Here's a short and simplified explanation. The antibodies that arise in a flu infection are more "intended" to prevent future infections than to clear the present infection. Infections drive T cell responses as well as antibody responses, and the T cells appear a little earlier (peaking at maybe a week) and are probably very useful for clearing the ...


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Most information here can be found broadly in Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 8th Ed. Here's how the flu vaccine works: Scientists forecast months in advance which strains they think stand to cause the most problems. The vaccine is often trivalent, protecting against three different strains on flu: Two influenza A and one influenza B. You can read about ...


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If you became infected before the advent of vaccination, you would either live or die. You would also probably die with really good odds. Being said, someone who lived a disease developed immunologic tolerance to the causative agent, that much you could begin to understand. To expose someone to smallpox was to really endanger their lives, so they found that ...


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B cells containing receptors against food's or drug's molecular structures may exists. However if the naive B cell binds the molecule without a second signal coming simultaneously from CD4 Tfh cells (linked recognition) the B cells recognizing this antigen will become anergic or will die by apoptosis. This occurs with antigens to which we are chronically ...


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Immunity can be a double edge sword. It is aimed to detect and destroy invading pathogens but it can also target the self, as exemplified in autoimmune diseases. To avoid this, many failsafe mechanisms exists. For example, imagine an innocuous foreign antigen gets into your body and reaches the lymph node. There it may find a naive B cell that has a ...



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