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1

While at least some other primates are suspectible to Ebola, pigs appear to be immune. From the WHO factsheet on Ebola (1): Although non-human primates have been a source of infection for humans, they are not thought to be the reservoir but rather an accidental host like human beings. Since 1994, Ebola outbreaks from the EBOV and TAFV species have ...


2

What you're referring to as a mosquito bite is actually the "wheal" (red swollen bump in the skin) that forms from an immune system reaction to antigens (foreign molecules) in the saliva of the mosquito that it leaves behind inside the bite. It's not technically a toxin, just something that causes an immune reaction. It's also not an infection, it's ...


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These so called virgin B-cells (becase they never had contact with their antigen) which are present in your body only have random B-cell receptors (when secreted, these are the antibodies), mostly of a relatively low binding affinity. These B-cells undergo division, re-arrangement and somatic hypermutation of the B-cell receptor and clonal selection. Only ...


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No, they are of course not there to cause allergies. It is thought (although not directly proven in human) that IgE is important to fight parasites and worms. They bind to antigens from the parasites, which leads to the secretion of histamines. This causes a local immune reaction (which also is a problem in allergies) which is helpful to fight the parasites. ...


1

In principle every molecule above a certain size (single amino acids for example can not) can be immunogenic. A very important function of the immune system is to differentiate between molecules, which are foreign and which should raise an immune response and those, which are not and which therefore have to be tolerated. If this differentiation doesn't work, ...


1

Molecules are antigenic if they are able to elicit an immune response. Let's incorrectly equate "antigenic" with "elicits antibody response". It's conceivable that a molecule might elicit an immune response, but not generate antibodies - this nuance is not particularly helpful for answering the question. Antibodies are proteins which recognize antigens. ...


4

This 2005 review in the Annual Review of Immunology entitled "Antigen-specific memory B cell development" would be a great first resource in answering your question in great detail. Briefly, memory B cells (MBC), upon re-exposure to the same antigen, very rapidly expand and differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells (PC), with the help of memory T ...


0

MattDMo's answer Essentially, [neutrophilic granulocytes] are the first infiltrating cells to arrive at the site of injury at the beginning of acute inflammation (bacterial infection, environmental exposure, etc.). which I agree with.


2

The exposure to environentally occurring Mycobacteria causes a immune response to these (mostly unspecific, since no real infections occur). It seems that immunizations with BCG in these individuals is causing either no, or only a very attenuated immune response This is shown in this ("BCG-induced increase in interferon-gamma response to mycobacterial ...


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Vaccines contain adjuvants. They are designed to enhance the immune response, which means creating something like an inflammatory response.


2

The progenitor cells of T-cells (they do not develop into T-cells and show their characteristics before reaching the thymus) are mobilized into the bloodstream and enter the thymus from it by crossing the endothelial barrier. The figure shows schematically the development of the precursor cells from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and the migration of the ...



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