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6

Broad means wide as in a wide range. Normally, antibodies have one epitope they recognize, i.e., one specific target; they are said to have a narrow range of targets. Some antibodies, however, recognize multiple targets, i.e. the number of targets they recognize is larger and their target range is widened. They are said to have a broad ...


5

The basic concept of the immune system is that it has to discriminate between self and foreign and that is only allowed to launch an immune reaction against something foreign. This is called immune tolerance which basically makes sure that all immune cells which are directed against the own organism are destroyed. If these antibodies survive, they can ...


2

In this context, "broad" is a buzzword, a piece of scientific jargon. It's a callback to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies[1], bNAbs. The basic idea with bNAbs is that they target parts of viral proteins that tend not to mutate or change very much between individual strains of some particular virus. Edit: To clarify, I am not suggesting that an antibody ...


2

Everything you state is correct, except that I disagree with your statement that a "[...] virus variant itself is a protein, which is composed of peptides. A virus is typically composed of a protein capsule with genetic material on the inside. So technically, a virus is not a protein, but its outer shell is composed of proteins. Further, a protein does not ...


2

Another example of multinucleated cells is osteoclasts, which are specialized derivatives of macrophages that degrade bone matrix. They form by fusion of mononucleated progenitors and can accumulate many nuclei in a single large cell. In cell culture with mouse macrophages, it's common to obtain individual osteoclasts with 50-100 or more nuclei each.


1

No not necessarily. Cancer can also be caused by bacteria and viruses in your body The regulation of cancerous tumor development is converged upon by multiple pathways and factors. Besides environmental factors, gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer can be caused by chronic inflammation, which is generally induced by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The ...


4

The immune privilege is happening for brain, CNS, eye, testis and the uterus. All these tissues (or structures) share that they cannot be regenerated once they get damaged by an overshooting immune reaction. Infections in the eye followed by a strong immune response often lead to the loss of the eye, in rodents loss if immune tolerance against the fetus ...


4

Here are some figures from Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 8th Edition: Hopefully they're helpful in some way.


3

It is of use. They're saying that naive T cells cannot be activated by normal cells because the latter lack the appropriate co-stimulus, namely B7. However, activated CD8+ T cells can recognize antigens presented by normal cells and form a response. This is how cytotoxic T cells are able to eliminate transformed or infected cells.


2

The immune system is the most beautiful, complex biological process that operates on a scale that it can be termed as engineering. MHC polymorphism: MHC's have two particular properties that give it flexibility in the face of the antigen: Its polygenicitcy (it contains several different MHC class I and MHC class II genes with different ranges of ...


3

For starters, your conception of antigen presentation seems a bit off, but that's not the crux of your question. There's around 10^15 different sequence permutations for a peptide 11-mer. Despite that, it's actually likely that highly conserved regions of some proteins will be present in both the pathogen and the host. T cells will not recognize them, ...



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