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9

Probably because it's easier to retain what the body wants than get rid of what the body doesn't want. What does your body want to keep from your Urine? Pretty much water and selective ions (Cl-, K+, Na+, Ca+2, etc.). Maybe a few other things, depending on how healthy you are. Now, what does your body want to get rid of in your Urine? Well, anything it ...


7

There are actually very few situations where organs can be harvested from donors. For all deceased donor transplants, the donor must be confirmed as being brain dead (both brain stem and higher cortical functions). However, in order for the organs to remain viable they must not become ischaemic - which is obviously a huge problem when the patients heart has ...


3

I would argue from an evolutionary perspective: not all kidneys are created equal. The mammalian kidney has a long evolutionary history and potentially a lot of phylogenetic inertia. Mammals do what they can with what they inherited from their ancestors. The metanephric kidney, which is what mammals have, is thought to have evolved with the first amniotes ...


3

The ureters run from the kidneys to the bladder whilst the urethra runs from the bladder to exit the body: The renal papillae are the site where urine drains into one of the minor calyxes of the kidney. Multiple minor calyxes join together into a major calyx, and multiple major calyxes join together to form the renal pelvis which then drains into the ...


2

Non-opsonized particles (Particles that can't be coated with opsonins like antibodies or complement proteins) can be engulfed by macrophages which could end up, for example, in the lung secretions and be coughed up one day. Note that a cell can only engulf a particle so large, so you'll not feel yourself coughing up anything out of the ordinary. Only tiny ...


2

I suffer from calcium oxalate stones. My doctor pointed me to this study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9096270 tl;dr; For calcium oxalate, drinking Mineral Water high in Calcium and Magnesium may reduce the risk of forming stones.


1

It is unlikely that drinking too much mineral water will cause kidney stones. One of the chief causes of kidney stones is dehydration. I can't imagine the calcium content of mineral water could be that high as to cause kidney stones (please correct me if I'm wrong) unless you drink ridiculous amount by which stage you will probably start to have electrolyte ...



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