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9

Probably because it's easier to retain what the body wants than get rid of what the body doesn't want. What does your body want to keep from your Urine? Pretty much water and selective ions (Cl-, K+, Na+, Ca+2, etc.). Maybe a few other things, depending on how healthy you are. Now, what does your body want to get rid of in your Urine? Well, anything it ...


7

There are actually very few situations where organs can be harvested from donors. For all deceased donor transplants, the donor must be confirmed as being brain dead (both brain stem and higher cortical functions). However, in order for the organs to remain viable they must not become ischaemic - which is obviously a huge problem when the patients heart has ...


5

The ureters run from the kidneys to the bladder whilst the urethra runs from the bladder to exit the body: The renal papillae are the site where urine drains into one of the minor calyxes of the kidney. Multiple minor calyxes join together into a major calyx, and multiple major calyxes join together to form the renal pelvis which then drains into the ...


5

It's the renal artery because it will contain everything from the liver as you describe plus all waste accumulated on the way from the liver to the kidney. Here it gets filtered, so there cannot be a place after the kidney that is less "pure".


4

The urogenital system as a cohesive functional unit probably evolved very early in vertebrate history. Hagfishes and lampreys have separate systems for reproduction and excretion. More derived groups of fishes use kidney tubules and ducts for sperm delivery outside the body (Helfman et al. 2009). The vertebrate nephron may be homologous to the invertebrate ...


4

Have a look at this figure (from here): In the descending loop the NaCl concentration is lower than in the surrounding tissue which leads to a passive water transport along the gradient, which leads to a concentration effect. In the ascending loop then NaCl is actively transported out of the loop which then prevents the diffusion of water back into the ...


4

It is to do with the extend of the damage to the glomerulus. In nephrotic syndromes the glomerulus is damaged so that there is death of the podocytes. This happens to sufficiently high number of podocytes so that large proteins such as albumin and clotting factors can leak out causing large proteinuria. Damage to the basement membrane may also occur, such as ...


3

The article itself1 defines what the authors mean by both proteinuria and refractory: ...progressive proteinuria, with [urine protein-to-creatinine] values ranging from 0.6 at initial evaluation to 5.16 at highest (reference interval, <0.2), despite medical intervention with increasing doses of benazepril HCl (0.5-1.02 mg/kg PO q12h) and control of ...


3

Proteinuria is the presence of proteins in urine. Refractory means "persistent" or "stubborn", but in medical terms it means resistant to treatment or cure.


3

I would argue from an evolutionary perspective: not all kidneys are created equal. The mammalian kidney has a long evolutionary history and potentially a lot of phylogenetic inertia. Mammals do what they can with what they inherited from their ancestors. The metanephric kidney, which is what mammals have, is thought to have evolved with the first amniotes ...


2

Non-opsonized particles (Particles that can't be coated with opsonins like antibodies or complement proteins) can be engulfed by macrophages which could end up, for example, in the lung secretions and be coughed up one day. Note that a cell can only engulf a particle so large, so you'll not feel yourself coughing up anything out of the ordinary. Only tiny ...


2

I suffer from calcium oxalate stones. My doctor pointed me to this study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9096270 tl;dr; For calcium oxalate, drinking Mineral Water high in Calcium and Magnesium may reduce the risk of forming stones.


2

Alain Bombard He is a french biologist who voluntarily tested how many days a man can survive drinking seawater and how? Biologist point of view Sea contains ~3.5% of salt$^1$. Our kidney separates the waste from water and excrete them in urine provided the salt content is less than ~2%.$^2$ So, it will take the water already present in the body. ...


2

First of all, I can't understand how can you regard an electrochemical process (tubular secretion) as chemical substance (hormone). Tubular secretion is the transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to renal tubular lumen. Tubular secretion is caused mainly by active transport. Usually only a few substances are secreted. These substances are ...


1

I checked my anatomy notes and online figures about the kidney. There is no mention about dedicated arteries for feeding kidney cells. So it does not work the same way as the heart does, where there is a dedicated coronary artery. The kidneys use the same blood vessels for filtering and for nutrition/waste transport purposes too. Figure 1 - kidney ...


1

Osteomyelitis can be diagnosed with the following imaging techniques [1]: first of all: radiography to view the anatomy of the bone the sonography can be used to diagnose fluid collections, periosteal involvement. It is also the most useful procedure for kidney assessment [2]. CT is also useful to detect early osseous erosion, but is less sensitive when it ...


1

It is unlikely that drinking too much mineral water will cause kidney stones. One of the chief causes of kidney stones is dehydration. I can't imagine the calcium content of mineral water could be that high as to cause kidney stones (please correct me if I'm wrong) unless you drink ridiculous amount by which stage you will probably start to have electrolyte ...


1

The process of urine concentration in mammals occurs due to the interaction of the loop of Henle and its nearby collecting tubule. When someone is dehydrated, the kidney will aim to a maximal water reabsorption. To concentrate urine, a maximal amount of ions will be reabsorbed. This is to maximalize the concentration gradient for water. However, the main ...



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