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I checked my anatomy notes and online figures about the kidney. Figure 1 - kidney anatomy - source Figure 2 - nephron anatomy - source There is no mention about dedicated arteries for feeding kidney cells. So it does not work the same way as the heart does, where there is a dedicated coronary artery. The kidneys most probably use the same blood ...


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The kidneys keep the composition, or makeup, of the blood stable, which lets the body function. Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. The nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process. The glomerulus lets fluid and waste products pass through it; however, it ...


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The article itself1 defines what the authors mean by both proteinuria and refractory: ...progressive proteinuria, with [urine protein-to-creatinine] values ranging from 0.6 at initial evaluation to 5.16 at highest (reference interval, <0.2), despite medical intervention with increasing doses of benazepril HCl (0.5-1.02 mg/kg PO q12h) and control of ...


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Proteinuria is the presence of proteins in urine. Refractory means "persistent" or "stubborn", but in medical terms it means resistant to treatment or cure.



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