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I checked my anatomy notes and online figures about the kidney. There is no mention about dedicated arteries for feeding kidney cells. So it does not work the same way as the heart does, where there is a dedicated coronary artery. The kidneys use the same blood vessels for filtering and for nutrition/waste transport purposes too. Figure 1 - kidney ...


The kidneys keep the composition, or makeup, of the blood stable, which lets the body function. Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. The nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus, and a tubule. The nephrons work through a two-step process. The glomerulus lets fluid and waste products pass through it; however, it ...


The article itself1 defines what the authors mean by both proteinuria and refractory: ...progressive proteinuria, with [urine protein-to-creatinine] values ranging from 0.6 at initial evaluation to 5.16 at highest (reference interval, <0.2), despite medical intervention with increasing doses of benazepril HCl (0.5-1.02 mg/kg PO q12h) and control of ...


Proteinuria is the presence of proteins in urine. Refractory means "persistent" or "stubborn", but in medical terms it means resistant to treatment or cure.

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