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9

There is the term “corset liver”. It describes changes (“grooves”) on the liver’s surface following external compression and subsequent local atrophy, e.g. from wearing a corset for a long time. (see Dancygier: Clinical Hepatology) A paper from the 1980s describes some abnormality in the histological findings of liver tissue of dogs after chronic abdominal ...


9

It's the renal artery because it will contain everything from the liver as you describe plus all waste accumulated on the way from the liver to the kidney. Here it gets filtered, so there cannot be a place after the kidney that is less "pure".


6

Liver does all those functions as far as I know. The liver hepatocyctes are stimulated to create the enzyme glycogen synthase which promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the presence of insulin. Glycogen is stored in the liver after its production for further use. The whole process is explained in detail in this page. Regarding the storage of ...


5

There are a couple of reasons why this approach doesn't work quite as well as you might hope. First, insulin doesn't go away after a high-fat meal. This paper reports changes in serum insulin following pure-sugar and pure-fat meals. Although there is much less of an increase in insulin following the pure-fat versus the pure-sugar meal, you will notice in ...


5

Teflon is a polymer of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds. PFOA is thought to be a carcinogen. I think there's an urban legend that if you really heat teflon up or burn it (it doesn't burn as flouroxides are not stable in air) that you might get some of the constituent chemicals out into the air. Once the flourocarbons are polymerized ...


4

Broadly speaking, nutrients that enter the blood from the gut, and those that are released into the blood by the liver, are available to any cells that require them. So there is no "guiding to the correct location" in the sense that you suggest. Lipids for example are present in the various lipoproteins and can be acquired from these by all cells. Iron is ...


4

Yes, the blood from the hepatic artery (proper) and the portal vein mix in the sinusoids of the liver. The hepatic vein supplies about 75% of the blood to the liver, and the hepatic artery the remaining 25%. Because the portal vein provides such a large part of the blood supply to the liver, then any disease that causes the blood to build up can cause portal ...


4

It's old and I can't get access to this issue of the Annals of the New York Academy of Science, but it looks like it has some relevant information. Sifting through the abstracts it seems the vasculature of the fetal liver is completed at around 8 weeks although is still different to the adult vasculature because of the umbilical vein. The growth of the organ ...


4

Maybe it is due to two factors: 1) The liver is one of the few solid non-tubular organs. If a tubular organ is damaged, all the layers that composes it must regenrate. This layers usually have different cell types, wich is always nasty for regneration since some of them may be formed by specilized tissue(For instance, myocites are very difficult to ...


4

At least 25% of the original liver seems to be the minimum for regrowth. The initial regrowth is due to proliferation of hepatocytes: they exit G0 and enter mitosis. The ECM dissolves and is remodeled; the cholangiocytes and SECs also divide. If you want to read more, you can visit the Google books link above, and the preview lets you read several pages ...


3

The liver does quite a lot of "housekeeping". It is responsible for a lot of energy metabolism: Gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose), Glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen into glucose), Glycogenesis (the synthesis of glycogen from glucose). It is important for protein degradation as well as for amino acid synthesis, as well as in the lipid ...


3

In anatomy, a "portal circulation" is simply when you have a capillary bed that is interposed between two venous circulations BEFORE blood flows back to the heart. There are a couple of places in the body where this occurs, including the liver (hepatic portal system) and the pituitary (hypophyseal portal system). To answer your question... yes, the hepatic ...


3

The answer lies in the question. Liver cirrhosis constrains hepatocytes into small fibrous spaces limiting regeneration, hence the nodular pattern. However,fibrous degeneration occurs in specific patterns. It can be located mostly around portal regions (centrolobular pattern) or diffusely through the whole lobule. So basically, it is all good that ...


3

In general, xenobiotic biotransformation (i.e. processing the xenobiotics aka drugs - detoxing the body) is accomplished by a limited number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. In humans, for example, two cytochrome P450 enzymes— namely,CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 — metabolise over half the orally administered drugs currently used. (Gonzalez and Tukey,2006). ...


2

I found that a search through Google Books was helpful... While without the excretion of feces, it might seem as if the liver would not be active, but the liver tissue is not only active in development and tissue generation but serves direct physiological function as well. After initial phases of development, the liver produces fetal red blood cells which ...


2

The crypt cells of the gut can actively secrete electrolytes (ions) via special channel which finally leads to water secretion. This is usually tightly controlled, since uncontrolled loss of water is obviously not good for the cells. Have a look at this schematic figure, (from this webpage): Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions are co-transported into the ...


2

It's just how we evolved. At some point in the past, a distant ancestor of ours had two lungs, two kidneys, one liver etc.( maybe then there was a pretty good reason for this). We evolved following that pattern and now we ourselves have two lungs, two kidneys, one liver etc. Snakes, for example, have just one functional lung because their elongated form ...


2

Excess nitrogen must be excreted by the body and can come from nitrogen in the diet (e.g. amino groups from excess amino acids) or nitrogen-containing compounds produced by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Normally the liver and kidneys are involved in excreting ammonia ($NH_3$) and ammonium ($NH_4^+$) from the body. Ammonia can be toxic ...


2

Welcome to stack. This is a good question. To answer your question: Generally, yes. Howeve like @user137 stated below it can depend on many factors most notably how many division cycles they go through, and also where they metastasize to. The immediate environment of a cell is very effective at altering gene expression. I use Hepg2 cells regularly. ...


1

Proteins will be digested through a number of proteases in the stomach and intestines (pepsin, trypsin, etc) into their constituent amino acids. The amino acids are then absorbed in the small intestine. So any specific proteins you try to put into a pill will be digested into amino acids before being absorbed. If you somehow manage to defeat the digestive ...


1

Epinephrine is a hormone that works systemically and will activate any and all cells that express a hormone receptor with specificity for epinephrine. As stated in the wikipedia article "It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation, and blood sugar. Epinephrine does this ...


1

Aside from "toxins", the liver metabolizes a host of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Endogenous compounds are compounds that are normally present and produced within the body like ammonia and estrogens for example. Exogenous compounds are those like ethanol/alcohol, acetaminophen, and other drugs/etc that are not normally in the body but rather we take a ...


1

The question and link imply that if cooking with Teflon generates carcinogens that carcinogens then always lead to cancer. This is not always true. In some cases exposure to carcinogens may signal protective pathways. Oncogenesis and exposure to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens are not always positively correlated. Cooking with Teflon influences ...


1

First of all Alcohol and Acetaldehyde are both cytotoxic. Along in our development we learned to deal with both substances, which is shown by specific metabolism pathways to break them down (for example alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, Cytochrom P450 and so on). Alcohol and Acetaldehyde both have a negative effect on mitosis (which ...



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