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Excess nitrogen must be excreted by the body and can come from nitrogen in the diet (e.g. amino groups from excess amino acids) or nitrogen-containing compounds produced by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Normally the liver and kidneys are involved in excreting ammonia ($NH_3$) and ammonium ($NH_4^+$) from the body. Ammonia can be toxic ...


There are a couple of reasons why this approach doesn't work quite as well as you might hope. First, insulin doesn't go away after a high-fat meal. This paper reports changes in serum insulin following pure-sugar and pure-fat meals. Although there is much less of an increase in insulin following the pure-fat versus the pure-sugar meal, you will notice in ...

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