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20

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


19

I'm going to take a shot at putting a whole lot of information into a small answer, so let me know what parts need more explanation. To any others experienced with closure, I am certainly skipping plenty of steps and ideas in attempt to convey the general. **A general warning that graphic surgical images are used below.** The Setup: You asked about ...


15

Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


13

One of the cornerstones of research ethics worldwide is the Nuremberg code, which was formulated shortly after the Second World War and set off by the cruelties performed by the Nazi Doctors. The Declaration of Helsinki, which is currently widely used as the guiding principle of research ethics, was directly inspired by the Nuremberg code. Interestingly, ...


11

The combination of these two reports from the CDC give information about the comparative prevalence of flu infection in the winter (September '12- May '13) and summer (May '13 - September '13). I'm going to assume that 2012-2013 was a fairly representative year as far as the level of detail of "do we get sick more in the winter" goes. Particularly striking ...


11

The normal cardiac cycle is comprised of two distinct phases: the systolic phase in which the heart contracts, ejecting the blood, followed by the the diastolic phase when the cardiac muscle relaxes, refilling the heart with blood. This cycle is assured by specialised cardiomyocytes (Cardiac muscle cells) that conduct electrical impulses through the heart. ...


10

History Ambroise Paré is credited with being the first to note his observations on Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT)in the 1500 though it is a technology that has been used for centuries (reference).It wasn't until the 1920's that therapeutic experimentation with maggots was instigated by William Baer, a clinical professor in orthopaedic surgery at the Johns ...


8

Very simply putting, irregular heat beat means that the pulse is not regular. It can be diagnosed by checking your pulse clinically. Irregularities are further classified as: Regularly Irregular: this occurs in heart blocks where every second or third beat is skipped regularly causing a pattern. Usually as time progresses the degree of block worsens and ...


8

It might be better to consider the sampling technology, economic and logistical issues with this question as well as the tech behind the tests. First, some tests still will want a few milliliters of blood - e.g. cell counts for specific cell types. Then there is the need to create and stock many different kinds of sample collection devices and train the ...


7

This is a very broad question, so I won't attempt to answer it fully. Instead, I'd recommend starting out by reading the Drug Development and Drug Discovery articles on Wikipedia, and if you have more specific questions after that then feel free to ask them here. Basically, new drugs (either small-molecule "chemicals" or large-molecule "biologicals") are ...


7

No, there was nothing special about Henrietta Lacks, apart from the fact that her cells have been used for so many years (without her knowledge or consent, by the way). She was not immortal, her tumor cells were. The HeLa cell line comes from her cervical cancer cells. The rest of the cells of her body were not immortal any more than yours or mine are. Such ...


7

Medicine is not my field, but I want to point out two things: The former words have latin roots, and historically latin was the international language of science. Therefore, nomenclature in different scientific fields are often based on latin. The former words describe tissues and the related functions/processes (e.g. renal = kidney + related tissues + ...


6

It might be due to livor mortis, also called postmortem lividity, which is the settling of the blood in the lower parts of the body which in your case might have been the limbs. By time the color can be interpreted as either blue or purple, but given, that not much time has passed it can very well be the reddish color you might have asked, as stated here on ...


6

Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. There is debate about how to best describe the problem, but narrowly defined, overdiagnosis occurs when increasingly sensitive tests - or changing definitions - identify abnormalities that are minor, non-progressive, or likely to resolve on their own, and that, if left untreated, will not cause symptoms or ...


6

The methodology behind homeopathy is scientific nonsense. If you dilute anything a billion times, it will have no chemical effect, not even if you shake it all the while. So no, homeopathy does nothing for cancer, or any medical condition at all. Of course plants can have active compounds in them, once scientists have identified those compounds, they can ...


5

There is an interesting and authoritative paper on rearing of larvae of blue bottle flies for debridement purposes, cited below. Essentially the eggs are disinfected (rinsed) using .25 % chloramine solution (NH2Cl), then the larvae are hatched and reared in aseptic conditions and fed sterilized food. There are some additional controls after initial ...


5

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


5

You are correct in that inflammation is a physiological process. It is vital for the correct development and localisation of a strong immune response, and contributes to tissue healing. However, the beneficial effects are replaced by dangerous processes when they are prolonged or too intense. This includes both effects of leukocyte attraction and invasion, ...


5

Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more dangerous to humans than many animals. Couldn't find too many examples but, there are some things to consider (according to [1]): there are seven distinct types of toxin with variable action among animals different dose / effect intensity ratio between toxin types toxins A, B, E and F cause disease in ...


5

The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


5

CFTR is the gene which encodes the "Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator", which is a membrane protein. Its function is to transport chloride and other negatively charged ion like thiocyanate ions from the inside of the cell to the outside (into the extra cellular space). This happens along a gradient, meaning the ions flow from the place of ...


5

In recent years, clinical trials are all necessary. You have to have the randomised control To make sure it isn't a placebo effect. If and only if the drug seems to be super effective will they cut the randomised control short and give the real drug to everyone. Sadly, while it may seem unethical, there was a cancer treatment that two cousins got into. The ...


4

The short answer is no, it will take forever for a drug to pass through skull bones. The usual reason to apply drugs on skin is if you want them to act right there, on the skin. Acne creams fit here. You need less drugs, you get where it is needed sooner, and you have fewer off-target effects, when compared to taking them by mouth. The brain is not "right ...


4

Erythema multiforme (minor) can and does occur in a lot of people; while it is usually self-limited, it can recur, especially when the trigger is an unsuspected food.[1] How common is it? It is very common. Necrobiosis Lipoidica is not uncommon in diabetics, less common but still found in non-diabetics. It can occur at any age, including the eighth decade. ...


4

The CFTR gene is coding a protein called CFTR (Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). This protein is an ion channel, which allows passive transport of the Cl- ions through the cell membrane in both directions. This allows the cells to transport water due to the active transport of Na+ ions. The Cl- ions follow the Na+ ions with passive ...


4

all Gram negative bacteria can potentially cause septic shock, but septic shock is not limited to Gram negative cell wall lipopolysaccharides. Any infectious agent can cause septic shock, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi and even viruses (this is quite evident in the recent Ebola outbreak).[1] The causative agents for sepsis/septic ...


4

The circulatory system is a dynamic system which cannot be adequately explained by your example (at least not by me). You need to understand it, not seek to make it fit your (especially) electrical circuits with resistors. Blood isn't electricity. At least try a fluid dynamics model. Let's take this very simple model: Blow up a balloon four-fifths of the ...


4

No, I don't think oxygenated water does anything to stop bloody noses. But holding a wet cotton swab with pressure to the inside of the nose might. The vast majority of bloody noses in healthy individuals arise from one specific area in the nose (on either side): In the mucosa of the nasal septum (the cartilagenous structure separating the nose into two ...


3

Disclaimer: all of this is not to be considered medical advice but rather a general explanation. You should talk with your physician and/or pharmacist on a case by case basis when determining whether to take a drug and how to dose it. We should consider that most pharmaceutical forms are made up from two main components: the active ingredient(s) and the ...


3

This website gives a nice overview, including how the FDA approve drugs that they expect will be spit and some practical issues of pill cutting. Yes, half a tablet of (2x dose) is, absent other issues, equivalent to one intact tablet of (1x) dose. The main exceptions are practical ones.. where the tablet cannot easily be cut; where the dosing is so ...



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