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20

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


14

Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


12

I'm going to take a shot at putting a whole lot of information into a small answer, so let me know what parts need more explanation. To any others experienced with closure, I am certainly skipping plenty of steps and ideas in attempt to convey the general. **A general warning that graphic surgical images are used below.** The Setup: You asked about ...


11

The combination of these two reports from the CDC give information about the comparative prevalence of flu infection in the winter (September '12- May '13) and summer (May '13 - September '13). I'm going to assume that 2012-2013 was a fairly representative year as far as the level of detail of "do we get sick more in the winter" goes. Particularly striking ...


10

History Ambroise Paré is credited with being the first to note his observations on Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT)in the 1500 though it is a technology that has been used for centuries (reference).It wasn't until the 1920's that therapeutic experimentation with maggots was instigated by William Baer, a clinical professor in orthopaedic surgery at the Johns ...


7

It might be better to consider the sampling technology, economic and logistical issues with this question as well as the tech behind the tests. First, some tests still will want a few milliliters of blood - e.g. cell counts for specific cell types. Then there is the need to create and stock many different kinds of sample collection devices and train the ...


7

This is a very broad question, so I won't attempt to answer it fully. Instead, I'd recommend starting out by reading the Drug Development and Drug Discovery articles on Wikipedia, and if you have more specific questions after that then feel free to ask them here. Basically, new drugs (either small-molecule "chemicals" or large-molecule "biologicals") are ...


7

No, there was nothing special about Henrietta Lacks, apart from the fact that her cells have been used for so many years (without her knowledge or consent, by the way). She was not immortal, her tumor cells were. The HeLa cell line comes from her cervical cancer cells. The rest of the cells of her body were not immortal any more than yours or mine are. Such ...


5

There is an interesting and authoritative paper on rearing of larvae of blue bottle flies for debridement purposes, cited below. Essentially the eggs are disinfected (rinsed) using .25 % chloramine solution (NH2Cl), then the larvae are hatched and reared in aseptic conditions and fed sterilized food. There are some additional controls after initial ...


5

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


5

The normal cardiac cycle is comprised of two distinct phases: the systolic phase in which the heart contracts, ejecting the blood, followed by the the diastolic phase when the cardiac muscle relaxes, refilling the heart with blood. This cycle is assured by specialised cardiomyocytes (Cardiac muscle cells) that conduct electrical impulses through the heart. ...


5

You are correct in that inflammation is a physiological process. It is vital for the correct development and localisation of a strong immune response, and contributes to tissue healing. However, the beneficial effects are replaced by dangerous processes when they are prolonged or too intense. This includes both effects of leukocyte attraction and invasion, ...


5

Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more dangerous to humans than many animals. Couldn't find too many examples but, there are some things to consider (according to [1]): there are seven distinct types of toxin with variable action among animals different dose / effect intensity ratio between toxin types toxins A, B, E and F cause disease in ...


5

The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


5

CFTR is the gene which encodes the "Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator", which is a membrane protein. Its function is to transport chloride and other negatively charged ion like thiocyanate ions from the inside of the cell to the outside (into the extra cellular space). This happens along a gradient, meaning the ions flow from the place of ...


4

The short answer is no, it will take forever for a drug to pass through skull bones. The usual reason to apply drugs on skin is if you want them to act right there, on the skin. Acne creams fit here. You need less drugs, you get where it is needed sooner, and you have fewer off-target effects, when compared to taking them by mouth. The brain is not "right ...


4

The CFTR gene is coding a protein called CFTR (Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). This protein is an ion channel, which allows passive transport of the Cl- ions through the cell membrane in both directions. This allows the cells to transport water due to the active transport of Na+ ions. The Cl- ions follow the Na+ ions with passive ...


4

all Gram negative bacteria can potentially cause septic shock, but septic shock is not limited to Gram negative cell wall lipopolysaccharides. Any infectious agent can cause septic shock, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi and even viruses (this is quite evident in the recent Ebola outbreak).[1] The causative agents for sepsis/septic ...


3

Disclaimer: all of this is not to be considered medical advice but rather a general explanation. You should talk with your physician and/or pharmacist on a case by case basis when determining whether to take a drug and how to dose it. We should consider that most pharmaceutical forms are made up from two main components: the active ingredient(s) and the ...


3

This website gives a nice overview, including how the FDA approve drugs that they expect will be spit and some practical issues of pill cutting. Yes, half a tablet of (2x dose) is, absent other issues, equivalent to one intact tablet of (1x) dose. The main exceptions are practical ones.. where the tablet cannot easily be cut; where the dosing is so ...


3

While inflammation is a natural defensive process, it also does (sometimes severe and/or permanent) damage to tissue. Therefore, when inflammation has been caused by an injury or an auto-immune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, anti-inflammatory drugs do more good than harm.


3

Erythema multiforme (minor) can and does occur in a lot of people; while it is usually self-limited, it can recur, especially when the trigger is an unsuspected food.[1] How common is it? It is very common. Necrobiosis Lipoidica is not uncommon in diabetics, less common but still found in non-diabetics. It can occur at any age, including the eighth decade. ...


2

I suspect I won't be crunching as much numbers as you'd want me to, however here are some basic points: Statins have shown a clear ability to improve the blood llipid profile. Their use in primary/secondary prevention for cardiac events is justified by the belief that less blood lipid will leave less lipids to clog the arteries with. This is an old ...


2

Though I totally agree with your views towards nanotechnology, There is always two sides of a coin. According to this article THE BAD (of Nanotechnology): Health: Nanoparticles have been shown to be absorbed in the livers of research animals and even cause brain damage in fish exposed to them after just 48 hours. If they can be taken up by ...


2

Yes, stem cells can pass through blood vessels and capillaries (as @WYSIWYG points, these cells should be small enough to fit inside that capillary). The interesting thing is that they posses multiple mechanisms of transmigration. They are attracted by TNF-alpha activated endothelial cells [1] and can pass through by [1]: leukocyte-like diapedesis ...


2

I believe your question is unclear, but if am I am understanding the question as: If H.L., or anyone, did not develop cancer, was never introduced to any physical insult, would they be immortal? The answer is no, they would not. When we talk about aging in biology, we use the technical term senescence. Without a cancerous influence normal aging would ...


2

This question has already been answered over at the Skeptics site in great detail. See Does circumcision reduce HIV risk? and Does circumcision lead to a net increase in quality of life?. The answers are well-sourced and there are answers addressing both sides of the issue.


2

You seem to not understand how botulism works. It is impossible for vultures (or anybody else) to get botulism from a carcass. First, you have spores. They are ubiquitous in nature, and you have probably eaten lots of them. They are especially common on vegetables growing around/in dirt, like garlic. The spores are indestructible when using common ...


2

That "red pulp" spaces you're referring are not blood vessels but, in fact, thyroid follicles that selectively absorb iodine from the blood for production of thyroid hormones and storage of thyroglobuline. So, they act as a reservoir of the materials used by the thyroid's epithelial cells, also called follicular cells, to produce thyroid hormones (T3 and ...


2

The answer here lies in epidemiology and the pathogenic nature of the virus. Humans infected with Ebola have a range of recovery rates of 5-75%, meaning that most of those infected will not survive infection. Given the combination of preparedness factors at first recognizing a true outbreak in Ebola and viral load which had already been spread by the point ...



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