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13

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


10

History Ambroise Paré is credited with being the first to note his observations on Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT)in the 1500 though it is a technology that has been used for centuries (reference).It wasn't until the 1920's that therapeutic experimentation with maggots was instigated by William Baer, a clinical professor in orthopaedic surgery at the Johns ...


9

The combination of these two reports from the CDC give information about the comparative prevalence of flu infection in the winter (September '12- May '13) and summer (May '13 - September '13). I'm going to assume that 2012-2013 was a fairly representative year as far as the level of detail of "do we get sick more in the winter" goes. Particularly striking ...


8

I'm going to take a shot at putting a whole lot of information into a small answer, so let me know what parts need more explanation. To any others experienced with closure, I am certainly skipping plenty of steps and ideas in attempt to convey the general. **A general warning that graphic surgical images are used below.** The Setup: You asked about ...


7

It might be better to consider the sampling technology, economic and logistical issues with this question as well as the tech behind the tests. First, some tests still will want a few milliliters of blood - e.g. cell counts for specific cell types. Then there is the need to create and stock many different kinds of sample collection devices and train the ...


7

This is a very broad question, so I won't attempt to answer it fully. Instead, I'd recommend starting out by reading the Drug Development and Drug Discovery articles on Wikipedia, and if you have more specific questions after that then feel free to ask them here. Basically, new drugs (either small-molecule "chemicals" or large-molecule "biologicals") are ...


7

No, there was nothing special about Henrietta Lacks, apart from the fact that her cells have been used for so many years (without her knowledge or consent, by the way). She was not immortal, her tumor cells were. The HeLa cell line comes from her cervical cancer cells. The rest of the cells of her body were not immortal any more than yours or mine are. Such ...


5

There is an interesting and authoritative paper on rearing of larvae of blue bottle flies for debridement purposes, cited below. Essentially the eggs are disinfected (rinsed) using .25 % chloramine solution (NH2Cl), then the larvae are hatched and reared in aseptic conditions and fed sterilized food. There are some additional controls after initial ...


5

The normal cardiac cycle is comprised of two distinct phases: the systolic phase in which the heart contracts, ejecting the blood, followed by the the diastolic phase when the cardiac muscle relaxes, refilling the heart with blood. This cycle is assured by specialised cardiomyocytes (Cardiac muscle cells) that conduct electrical impulses through the heart. ...


5

You are correct in that inflammation is a physiological process. It is vital for the correct development and localisation of a strong immune response, and contributes to tissue healing. However, the beneficial effects are replaced by dangerous processes when they are prolonged or too intense. This includes both effects of leukocyte attraction and invasion, ...


4

The short answer is no, it will take forever for a drug to pass through skull bones. The usual reason to apply drugs on skin is if you want them to act right there, on the skin. Acne creams fit here. You need less drugs, you get where it is needed sooner, and you have fewer off-target effects, when compared to taking them by mouth. The brain is not "right ...


3

Disclaimer: all of this is not to be considered medical advice but rather a general explanation. You should talk with your physician and/or pharmacist on a case by case basis when determining whether to take a drug and how to dose it. We should consider that most pharmaceutical forms are made up from two main components: the active ingredient(s) and the ...


3

This website gives a nice overview, including how the FDA approve drugs that they expect will be spit and some practical issues of pill cutting. Yes, half a tablet of (2x dose) is, absent other issues, equivalent to one intact tablet of (1x) dose. The main exceptions are practical ones.. where the tablet cannot easily be cut; where the dosing is so ...


3

While inflammation is a natural defensive process, it also does (sometimes severe and/or permanent) damage to tissue. Therefore, when inflammation has been caused by an injury or an auto-immune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, anti-inflammatory drugs do more good than harm.


3

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


3

Erythema multiforme (minor) can and does occur in a lot of people; while it is usually self-limited, it can recur, especially when the trigger is an unsuspected food.[1] How common is it? It is very common. Necrobiosis Lipoidica is not uncommon in diabetics, less common but still found in non-diabetics. It can occur at any age, including the eighth decade. ...


2

I suspect I won't be crunching as much numbers as you'd want me to, however here are some basic points: Statins have shown a clear ability to improve the blood llipid profile. Their use in primary/secondary prevention for cardiac events is justified by the belief that less blood lipid will leave less lipids to clog the arteries with. This is an old ...


2

Though I totally agree with your views towards nanotechnology, There is always two sides of a coin. According to this article THE BAD (of Nanotechnology): Health: Nanoparticles have been shown to be absorbed in the livers of research animals and even cause brain damage in fish exposed to them after just 48 hours. If they can be taken up by ...


2

Yes, stem cells can pass through blood vessels and capillaries (as @WYSIWYG points, these cells should be small enough to fit inside that capillary). The interesting thing is that they posses multiple mechanisms of transmigration. They are attracted by TNF-alpha activated endothelial cells [1] and can pass through by [1]: leukocyte-like diapedesis ...


2

I believe your question is unclear, but if am I am understanding the question as: If H.L., or anyone, did not develop cancer, was never introduced to any physical insult, would they be immortal? The answer is no, they would not. When we talk about aging in biology, we use the technical term senescence. Without a cancerous influence normal aging would ...


2

This question has already been answered over at the Skeptics site in great detail. See Does circumcision reduce HIV risk? and Does circumcision lead to a net increase in quality of life?. The answers are well-sourced and there are answers addressing both sides of the issue.


2

Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more dangerous to humans than many animals. Couldn't find too many examples but, there are some things to consider (according to [1]): there are seven distinct types of toxin with variable action among animals different dose / effect intensity ratio between toxin types toxins A, B, E and F cause disease in ...


1

Summary: Yes it can, but not the way you might think. Humans aren't under a lot of selective pressure on a large scale right now. We have a lot of control over our environment, and you're accurate that disease (or I'd add massive, fatal natural disasters) are the biggest ways we would see a large genetic shift. (Or genocide, which is an extremely ...


1

A friend told me, during a 3 minute discussion, that viruses that are endemic in host A and make repeated jumps to host B but can't be transmitted between individuals of species B, may slowly adapt (through these repeated jumps) to be able to be transmitted between individuals of host B and become epidemic. This is...mostly true. A good example ...


1

A quick answer for now (I'll add details as I find): The infection of B from A would be zoonosis. This transfer may not have followed a classical route of infection. For example the case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), the zoonosis occurs throuch the rodent (primary host) droppings. Other example is that of avian influenza- the zoonosis doesn't ...


1

I gather you are talking about anti-axiety drugs (anxiolytics). Benzodiazepines is one of the major groups of anxiolytics, and includes Xanax. Benzodiazepines are central nervous depressants, meaning that they reduce the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain. They do this by binding to the GABA-A receptor and enhancing the effect of the inhibitory ...


1

The sensory and motor components are required (GP and vagus respectively). Similar to the corneal reflex and cranial nerve 5 and 7, if a lesion exists in either the sensory or motor component there will be a defect. In your case, there is no motor innervation on the left due to the lack of the vagus nerve so there is no vagus nerve response.


1

The idea of tumour heterogeneity has been around for a long time (look at the below review and the refs therein), but the underlying causes have been revised in the light of theoretical advances and the novel (Gerlinger et al.) genetic data. Firstly genetic heterogeneity was largely believed to be the cause of genetic instability (an increased mutation ...


1

It's quite interesting that the first reference that come to mind is not a mathematical/theoretical one (which is, in all likelihood, going to be a lot older than the one I am going to mention) but a clinical one. That would be Gerlinger and Swanton and their paper in the New England Journal of Medicine.


1

NIGHT MYOPIA - is a tendency for eyes to become near-sighted in dim illumination. There are multiple theories explaining the phenomenon, most of them are related to accommodation or chromatic shift in scotopic light conditions when to light is focused before the fovea thus worsening the existing myopia. Citation: In dark adaptation the eye becomes ...



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