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26

I'm going to take a shot at putting a whole lot of information into a small answer, so let me know what parts need more explanation. To any others experienced with closure, I am certainly skipping plenty of steps and ideas in attempt to convey the general. ******A general warning that graphic surgical images are used below.****** The Setup: You asked ...


22

High oxygen concentration can be deleterious; it can induce oxidative damage. The systemic blood circulation would supply oxygen to the "oxygen-deprived" lung. Moreover, Mycobacteria can survive in anaerobic conditions. And what if both lungs are infected? There are many flaws in the proposed therapy. Adding this point from one of the comments below: ...


20

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


16

Necessary conditions In order for the process culminating in appendiceal rupture to begin, there must first be proximal obstruction of the lumen (the inside cavity of the appendix) that prevents normal communication with the bowel. Obstruction is most commonly caused by a fecalith, which results from accumulation and inspissation of fecal matter around ...


15

Doctors would recommend the use of barrier protection for couples where both partners are HIV+ because the virus can mutate. Mutated forms of the virus can become resistant to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) treatments, rendering them ineffective. The use of barrier protection reduces the risk that a resistant mutant strain of HIV is ...


14

One of the cornerstones of research ethics worldwide is the Nuremberg code, which was formulated shortly after the Second World War and set off by the cruelties performed by the Nazi Doctors. The Declaration of Helsinki, which is currently widely used as the guiding principle of research ethics, was directly inspired by the Nuremberg code. Interestingly, ...


13

History Ambroise Paré is credited with being the first to note his observations on Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT) in the 1500 though it is a technology that has been used for centuries (reference). It wasn't until the 1920's that therapeutic experimentation with maggots was instigated by William Baer, a clinical professor in orthopaedic surgery at the ...


12

The normal cardiac cycle is comprised of two distinct phases: the systolic phase in which the heart contracts, ejecting the blood, followed by the the diastolic phase when the cardiac muscle relaxes, refilling the heart with blood. This cycle is assured by specialised cardiomyocytes (Cardiac muscle cells) that conduct electrical impulses through the heart. ...


12

Medicine is not my field, but I want to point out two things: The former words have latin (or greek) roots, and historically latin was the international language of science. Therefore, nomenclature in different scientific fields are often based on latin. The former words describe tissues and the related functions/processes (e.g. renal = kidney + related ...


11

The combination of these two reports from the CDC give information about the comparative prevalence of flu infection in the winter (September '12- May '13) and summer (May '13 - September '13). I'm going to assume that 2012-2013 was a fairly representative year as far as the level of detail of "do we get sick more in the winter" goes. Particularly striking ...


8

Very simply putting, irregular heat beat means that the pulse is not regular. It can be diagnosed by checking your pulse clinically. Irregularities are further classified as: Regularly Irregular: this occurs in heart blocks where every second or third beat is skipped regularly causing a pattern. Usually as time progresses the degree of block worsens and ...


8

No, there was nothing special about Henrietta Lacks, apart from the fact that her cells have been used for so many years (without her knowledge or consent, by the way). She was not immortal, her tumor cells were. The HeLa cell line comes from her cervical cancer cells. The rest of the cells of her body were not immortal any more than yours or mine are. Such ...


8

It might be better to consider the sampling technology, economic and logistical issues with this question as well as the tech behind the tests. First, some tests still will want a few milliliters of blood - e.g. cell counts for specific cell types. Then there is the need to create and stock many different kinds of sample collection devices and train the ...


8

The methodology behind homeopathy is scientific nonsense. If you dilute anything a billion times, it will have no chemical effect, not even if you shake it all the while. So no, homeopathy does nothing for cancer, or any medical condition at all. Of course plants can have active compounds in them, once scientists have identified those compounds, they can ...


7

This is a very broad question, so I won't attempt to answer it fully. Instead, I'd recommend starting out by reading the Drug Development and Drug Discovery articles on Wikipedia, and if you have more specific questions after that then feel free to ask them here. Basically, new drugs (either small-molecule "chemicals" or large-molecule "biologicals") are ...


7

There is an interesting and authoritative paper on rearing of larvae of blue bottle flies for debridement purposes, cited below. Essentially the eggs are disinfected (rinsed) using .25 % chloramine solution (NH2Cl), then the larvae are hatched and reared in aseptic conditions and fed sterilized food. There are some additional controls after initial ...


7

Cancer cells can be and are used in cell culture. HeLa cells were the first human cell line to be grown in culture and they were derived from a cervical tumor. That being said, Cancer cell lines would not necessarily be used for stem cell work. They have sustained too many mutations to study the type of questions that stem cells are used to study, though as ...


6

It might be due to livor mortis, also called postmortem lividity, which is the settling of the blood in the lower parts of the body which in your case might have been the limbs. By time the color can be interpreted as either blue or purple, but given, that not much time has passed it can very well be the reddish color you might have asked, as stated here on ...


6

CFTR is the gene which encodes the "Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator", which is a membrane protein. Its function is to transport chloride and other negatively charged ion like thiocyanate ions from the inside of the cell to the outside (into the extra cellular space). This happens along a gradient, meaning the ions flow from the place of ...


6

Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. There is debate about how to best describe the problem, but narrowly defined, overdiagnosis occurs when increasingly sensitive tests - or changing definitions - identify abnormalities that are minor, non-progressive, or likely to resolve on their own, and that, if left untreated, will not cause symptoms or ...


6

The accepted answer is correct but I would like to point out a misunderstanding that has to underly the idea that this would work: In reality lungs aren't a magical one-way gate for the various gases. Lungs do not extract oxygen from the air, they permit oxygen exchange between the air and the blood. Since the air normally has a higher oxygen level than ...


6

Adding onto AMR's answer, cancer cell lines are used extensively for research. They are typically fast to grow. HeLa Long grow to capacity of a 10cm dish within about 48hours, depending how you split them. Now some lines are different than others and each have their pros/cons but the main thing behind them is they make it possible to view the effects of ...


5

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


5

You are correct in that inflammation is a physiological process. It is vital for the correct development and localisation of a strong immune response, and contributes to tissue healing. However, the beneficial effects are replaced by dangerous processes when they are prolonged or too intense. This includes both effects of leukocyte attraction and invasion, ...


5

Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more dangerous to humans than many animals. Couldn't find too many examples but, there are some things to consider (according to [1]): there are seven distinct types of toxin with variable action among animals different dose / effect intensity ratio between toxin types toxins A, B, E and F cause disease in ...


5

The appendix doesn't burst by itself. It just lives there quietly, not causing problems. But if it gets infected, it gets full of bacteria, their waste (frequently toxic), and whatever liquids your body exuded into it to fight the infection. It is also connected to your digestive tract, which contains half-digested food. When the appendix swells due to ...


5

In recent years, clinical trials are all necessary. You have to have the randomised control To make sure it isn't a placebo effect. If and only if the drug seems to be super effective will they cut the randomised control short and give the real drug to everyone. Sadly, while it may seem unethical, there was a cancer treatment that two cousins got into. The ...


5

What a great question! I'm sorry to add another blow to your theory... but... Even if oxygen depletion would be effective, treating the lungs alone is not good enough. True enough, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can also attack other parts of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain (Fig. 1). If not treated ...


5

Why are haemorrhoids more common in humans than in animals? This is due to the majority of animals, including apes, are on all fours. Only the human species stands and walks straight up with two feet. Therefore, the blood in the body has enhanced arduousness in circulating and travelling back to the heart. A justification for the commonness of hemorrhoids ...


4

The short answer is no, it will take forever for a drug to pass through skull bones. The usual reason to apply drugs on skin is if you want them to act right there, on the skin. Acne creams fit here. You need less drugs, you get where it is needed sooner, and you have fewer off-target effects, when compared to taking them by mouth. The brain is not "right ...



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