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The blue colour is an example of structural colour, caused by light interacting physically with something. Some examples of structural colour are the iridescence of insect wings and body surfaces (usually caused by repeating chitinous structures), and of certain birds feathers, as well as the non-iridescent colours of the blue and yellow macaw. In the case ...


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The generation of iris color is quite complex and the exact color of the eyes depends upon many different factors, not just melanin. In fact, blue coloration does not depend on a specific chemical, but on the structure of the eye itself. This very nice review (free) summarizes our current understanding: Genetics of human iris colour and patterns - Sturm and ...


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The upper layer of the skin (or the epidermis) is formed mostly by keratinocytes and some melanocytes (about 30-40 times more keratinocytes) and also fibroblasts (although they are not shown here). The melanocytes are found in the basal cell layer at the border between epidermis and dermis as shown in the figure below (from here): The melanocytes spread ...


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The tanning response to UV occurs in two phases: The immediate response begins at exposure to UV-A, reaches a max at 1-2 hours, and fades between 3 and 24 hours. This article speculates that this is due to the redistribution of melanosomes rather than additional melanin production. The delayed response is more durable, occurring by repeated exposure to ...



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