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The release of the hormone melatonin is responsible for the feeling of sleepiness. It is released by the pineal gland and production starts when the light fades, as it's production is inhibited by light stimulation of the retina, the onset of the production is called dim-light melatonin onset. Read more about this at this previous answer. This study on ...


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Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland located in the brain and its production is inhibited by light to the retina and permitted by darkness (reference). It has a lot of affects on the body (reference) but I will stick to just discussing its apparent affects on aging and skin. Melatonin works as an antioxidant and helps in removing free ...


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This is a quite complicated question, as melatonin has quite a range of effects on the cells. First, melatonin binds to three different melatonin receptors, which are found in a wide variety of tissues or organs including brain and retina, cardiovascular system, liver and gallbladder, intestine, kidney, immune cells, adipocytes, prostate and breast ...


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The immediate thought came to my mind was relation between Melatonin and Serotonin. Because both hormones have sleep related function. I read that both are light sensitive. Melatonin is produced by pineal gland in brain whereas Serotonin is at gut and CNS. Light dependence(Wikipedia) of Melatonin is explained here where they say blue light produces more ...


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From Kalsbeek et al 1999 Neuroscience (link 1, link 2) "retina-mediated photic activation of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons induces the release of GABA from efferent suprachiasmatic nucleus nerve terminals, resulting in an inhibition of melatonin release by the pineal gland." So it appears that GABA is key. When the retina is stimulated by light ...


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Take a look at this (especially page 938): Coordination of circadian timing in mammals by Steven M. Reppert & David R. Weaver Nature 418, 935-941 (29 August 2002) | doi:10.1038/nature00965 Sodium-dependent action potentials provide the primary means by which the SCN transmit circadian outputs to other brain areas and are essential to its role as ...



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