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The basic struture of the metabolic networks (MN) is like this: molecule1 -> molecule2, where the edges are enzymes. And the basic structure of the PPIN is like this: Protein1 - Protein2, where the edges are van der Waals forces between proteins. There are some diferences, PPIN isnt directional and MN is directional in the way of the spontaneous ...


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Proteins interact with each other often for regulation purposes and for localization of several enzymatic reactions for increased efficiency. For example, some proteins inhibit their binding partners. Or DNA replication complex are made of bunch of proteins many of which do different jobs, but they are in complex (e.g. helicase with actual polymerase). ...


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In short, proteins in Protein-protein interaction networks perform a function by directly interacting with one another. They may for instance bind to one another forming permanent or momentary complexes (e.g. insulin binding to insulin receptor or the pieces of F0-F1 ATPase combining), or they may chemically modify one another (e.g. protein kinases adding a ...


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Short Answer: There was an interesting paper that dealt with the pH of urine when citric acid was consumed. The summary was: There was no increase in urinary pH or total nitrogen in 24 hours collection of urine. What This Means: The food we take does not affect the blood pH directly. Acidic food will cause increased secretion of alkaline components into ...


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Plants need sugar not only for energy but also for synthesizing essential metabolites and building blocks including cellulose (used in cell wall), glycoproteins and 5-carbon sugars for nucleotides. As already mentioned by canadianer, plants respire by oxidizing sugars. This happens mostly during the night. However photosynthesis also produces ATP and ...


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Oxygen in photosynthesis does not come from carbon dioxide. It comes from water and this is the step that actually requires light: Photolysis of water. The proton produced in this process is used to synthesize ATP and NADPH by a chemiosmotic process similar to what happens in mitochondria. These biochemical pathways are also referred to as Light reactions. ...


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If you can digest (break down) the polysaccharides to useable monosaccharides, then they can be incorporated into glycolysis (or some other metabolic pathway!). The metabolic pathways around glycolysis are complex, but here is a representation of some of them: As you can see in, in the top right corner, sucrose/starch, but also other sugars like ...


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here is an interesting article: The accumulation of radioactive iodine by Amphioxus summarizing the abstract: it's about cephalocordates that are not vertebrate, so they are close relatives (most related to the ancestors of) the vertebrate. The specific cephalocordate in question is amphioxus.The article talks about a specific gland called the "endostyle" ...


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Classical thyroid hormones implement a very flexible signaling mechanism. Basically, they comprise two aromatic rings that are connected via an oxygen atom. Optionally, they may contain organic side chains and inorganic iodine atoms. In the case of iodothyronines, which are represented e.g. by the well-known thyroid hormones T4, T3 and 3,5-T2, the side ...


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1 and 2) You need to build/use a calorimeter : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calorimeter Different types exist, depending on your constraints. 3 and 4) It will depend on the size of your system. If you decide to use an adiabatic calorimeter: First have an estimate of their metabolism (see e.g. [1]), then divide the energy spent over the duration you think ...



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