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I'm not sure if they will be useful for your application, but you should look into software used to visualize ecological networks (and maybe also software used for drawing electrical charts). The type of data used there is very similar to what you want to plot, with nodes, along with metadata for nodes on e.g. rates or connection strenghts. I can point you ...


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I heard somewhere that cells ………………………… so they regulate where they use up the energy. Yes NADP/H is primarily employed in anabolic pathways such as fatty acid synthesis, while NAD/H is employed in catabolic pathways such as glycolysis. I don't think there is a general rule for other "energy-currency" molecules (pyrimidine triphosphates are not used ...


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To add my 2 cents worth: Breathing rate and depth is regulated by chemoreceptors in the medulla. These chemoreceptors primarily respond to pH of the blood, but the pH is for an important part determined by the CO2/HCO3- equilibrium as explained by @TomD. Essentially it is the increase in CO2 that is sensed by the medulla and which increases breathing ...


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Our body maintains a very delicate balance between the concentration of metabolites and substrates. If a pathway is not regulated, excess of a particular metabolite can disturb the whole process. Let's take cholesterol metabolism pathway for example. there are various means by which the cells control the production of cholesterol. For example AMP controlled ...


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It is not uncommon for cells to have parallel pathways for same outcome. This ensures foolproof response and makes the system robust. E.coli also has another sensor for aerotaxis (Aer and Tsr proteins). See my answer on your previous post and the linked paper. Also look for coherent feed forward network motifs.


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I think this experiment (PDF file) will help you understand the basic concept about the fate of oxygen in aerobic respiration. Basically the result is: The oxygen of respiratory carbon dioxide is in exchange equilibrium with body water. Utilized molecular oxygen is converted to body water. In respect to calculation of electrons donated to oxygen, just ...


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Glucose catabolism is a multistep process involving a series of reactions. The reaction you gave is simply the overall, balanced equation; it doesn't actually happen like that in living cells. All diatomic oxygen is converted to water in the electron transport chain, but water is also consumed and produced throughout the preceding steps, which is why the ...


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Nice question! Oxygen is actually not needed in the Krebs cycle - it is needed in the electron transport chain that is upstream of the Krebs cycle to regenerate NAD+ from NADH (see link). However, note that without O2 NADH accumulates and the cycle cannot continue as it needs NAD+ to run.



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