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1) Yes, most cells in the body derive energy from oxidative metabolism, unless oxygen is not available for some reason. There are some exceptions, for example red blood cells lack mitochondria and so have no respiration, and various types of rapidly proliferating cells such as activated immune cells have high glycolysis and lactate production (for reasons ...


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This is somewhat outside my field, but basically it seems they're defining the independence of the three hypothetical metabolic pathways in two different ways: Mathematically the pathways are not independent since P₃ is a combination of P₁ and P₂. Biologically the pathways are independent since each requires a different combination of enzymes and ...


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For any dynamic system defined by different components, the steady state is the state of the system in which the components remain constant over time. If you consider the example of growth (by cell division) the point at which the total number of cells remain constant would be the steady state. This is a point at which birth rate = death rate. Similarly for ...


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Mixing of alcohol and energy drinks can be detrimental to ones health as both alcohol and the caffeine in energy drinks are both stimulants which can cause adverse effects on the heart especially if one has a natural sensitivity to caffeine. One also has to be careful as both caffeine and alcohol are diuretics which when combined can cause even greater risk ...



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