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Folate, or rather its active form tetrahydrofolate (THF), is a coenzyme that carries a 1-carbon group. The carbon group can occur in various redox states: CH3-THF (methyl-THF), CH2-THF (methylene-THF), CH-THF (methenyl-THF) or CHO-THF (formyl-THF). These can be interconverted by a variety of enzymes, and are used by cells to synthesize a number of products, ...


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Glucose is the only fuel normally used by brain cells. Because neurons cannot store glucose, they depend on the bloodstream to deliver a constant supply of this fuel. Fatty acids do not serve as fuel for the brain, because they are bound to albumin in plasma and so do not traverse the blood-brain barrier. In starvation, ketone bodies generated by the liver ...


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Creatine itself is never converted into ATP. Creatine-phosphate on the other hand can donate its phosphate group to ADP, phosphorylating to form ATP and creatine. This is a buffer system for high-energy phosphates, and is very important in organs with rapid ATP turnover, notably muscle. The mechanism of the findings described in the papers is not fully ...


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You are correct that cats consume a lot of protein, and it's safe to assume a large share of this is broken down to amino acids, which are then oxidized to produce energy. But amino acids in general are not catabolized via glucose; instead, they are converted into compounds that feed into the TCA cycle via other biochemical routes. Almost every of the 20 ...



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