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Since the ability to utilize glucose for energy is necessary for life (look at the effect of hypoglycemia on brain function, for example), it makes sense that the regulation of serum glucose concentration would have a number of pathways, that is, redundancy helps to ensure continued proper function should one of the regulatory mechanisms fail. Glucagon is ...


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I think the answers above have covered the basic breakdown of how our body regulates blood pH and why it is clearly misleading to propose that drinking lemon juice can have a positive effect on acidosis mediated illnesses. What I would like to add from a more microbial perspective is that a paper by Yoshiake Miyake on the Metabolism of Antioxidant in Lemon ...


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A pathway doesn’t have substrates, only a reaction does. And therefore there’s no such thing as a direct or indirect substrate. You can perhaps ask what the precursors are for glycogen (but do you mean immediate or distal), or what the substrates are for the first reaction in the pathway (but only if it is quite clear what the first reaction i). That’s the ...


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I have partially answered this question by discovering that the metabolic pathway is called enterohepatic circulation. In this interaction bile salts are absorbed and transported out of ileal mucosal cells by binding to albumin. However, it is still unkown to me exactly how it is that thyroxine and other hormones are moderated in this process and how it ...


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Let's look at what happens when a single cell within a cell wall freezes. We end up with a little drop of ice, within which are encased all the cellular structures. Thaw this ice, and all is well - provided neither freezing nor thawing happen too rapidly. Now take what happens in a human being. First, the blood in the extremities gets colder, and cools the ...



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