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I wouldn't call influenza a vector here, but yes, an infection with the flu virus which results in a full infection can have secondary infections as complications. There are often caused by bacteria which usually live in the respiratory pathway and kept under control by the immune system. This includes pneumonia (either viral or bacterial), inflammation of ...


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inf3rno's comment provides a great example, in the production of vinegar (Food Safety Magazine): In the production of some fermented foods, biofilms are an essential element for optimum production. During the production of vinegar, acetic acid bacteria are allowed to grow on wood chips. The biofilm that is formed helps make the conversion of substrate to ...


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A vector transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another. Fruit bats are vectors for Ebola. They are a host to the virus, which can then be passed on to humans. Influenza A, the virus responsible for human seasonal epidemics, is not a vector for other pathogens, although co-infection with two different strains of influenza can give rise ...


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While a viral infection such as influenza can lead to secondary infections, it is inappropriate to call it a vector for those other infections. It is not the means by which those other infections are acquired. If a bacterial sinus infection follows upon a bout with the flu, that bacteria was not carried to the patient by the influenza virus. A single ...


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It looks like you're very stringently avoiding $^1\mathrm{H}$. You may want to consider replica plating your transformations onto $\mathrm{D}_2\mathrm{O}$ plates (selecting for $\mathrm{D}_2\mathrm{O}$ tolerance earlier.) I assume you're doing protein NMR and want "triple labeling." Depending on how specific your carbon labelling is, you may want to grow ...


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Could not fit in a comment.... To make sure we all understand your question... Is your question how many eukaryote species are currently living? or How many eukaryotes cells are currently living?? Just a hint to answer the question Micheal Lynch, in his book (On the origin of genome architecture) at page 3, Box 1.1 tries to answer the question How much ...


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Amalgam fillings are made from an alloy. The properties of the chemical elements bound into an alloy are different than the properties of those elements in different forms. The fillings do not release any biologically significant form or biologically significant amount of either silver or mercury. They are essentially inert. Plus silver antibacterial ...



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