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If the plasmids you wish to transform are very big (more than 20kb), the co-transformation might not be very efficient (you might not get any colonies). Electroporation should work though, as electrocompetent cells are more efficient than chemically competent cells. Alternatively, as you have read, you could transform your first plasmid and select for it, ...


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Protons are pumped out of the bacterial cell by the electron tansport chain. This creates a protonmotive force with two components, one due to the difference in proton concentration, the other due to the membrane potential that is created. In bacteria and mitochondria it is the membrane potential component that provides most of the driving force to pull ...


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The mechanism is likely very straightforward. Activated macrophages already in the area are releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, MIP-2, etc. These are not only important for granuloma formation, but they also recruit other immune cells to the area. However, since cord factor has this anti-migratory effect, once the cells get ...


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The problem with this is something called the structure-function relationship. The function of a protein or enzyme is completely dependent on its structure. For example, take a look at this representation of the active site of chymotrypsin: The side chains of D102, H57, and S195 all need to be in a perfect conformation in order for the enzyme to function ...


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According to the classification of sepsis, it is SIRS with a suspected or known source of infection. By definition therefore, sepsis without SIRS is not sepsis but SIRS can exist without sepsis. In all fairness though, SIRS can exist if you run for a while (elevated heart rate and respiratory rate by themselves qualify for a diagnosis of SIRS). Sepsis is ...


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I'm not sure that I have understood the question but ... HbeAg is a secreted variant of HbcAg (the core antigen of HBV). Unlike HbcAg, HbeAg is found in the blood. I believe that it is produced as a result of a splice variant of the corresponding RNA. The phenomenon described in these Figures is an example of seroconversion. Before seroconversion the ...


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The Parsis and other Zoroastrians dispose of their dead in a so-called Tower of Silence, where the body is left on a raised platform to be eaten by scavengers, particularly birds such as vultures. This is possibly (probably?) the quickest way for nutrients to re-enter the wider ecosystem, as scavengers usually work a whole lot quicker than microbes. ...



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