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The fermentation is relatively complex, as quite a number of different bacterial species and yeast live in the Kefir grains. These are made of of the polysaccheride kefiran which immobilizes the bacteria (in contrast for example to yoghurt). The microbes live symbiotic on this matrix. According to the references a number of different microorganisms has been ...


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Well essentially the added Lactobacillus species ferment lactose and other sugars to lactic acid, thus lowering the pH of the product (they take up lactose use it as an energy source under anaerobic conditions and secrete lactic acid). This gives the kefir and other fermented milk products their sourness. Also the lower pH prevents many other bacteria from ...


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There are photosynthetic archaea (such as Halobacterium) but the mechanism is different. They use rhodopsin-like ion pumps (bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin) to move ions against the gradient and produce ATP via chemiosmosis (like mitochondria).


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Yeast can produce up to 16-17 v/v% ethanol without dying according to this article. Yeast is a primary industrial ethanol producer, it produces ethanol even under aerobic conditions, in contrast to bacteria that usually ferment sugar to ethanol under anaerobic conditions. Bacteria can also withstand up to several percent v/v concentration ethanol in their ...


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Conjugation occurs between cells of the same species too. For this to occur cell have to be close to each other. Now, if you have an isolated population of bacteria that never gets in contact with an F+ bacteria then this population would stay F-. Also not all conjugation events are successful, mechanical perturbations can disrupt the pilus through which ...


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To get to the membrane of these species you first need to get past a formidable cell wall. The methods listed below are therefore more aimed at making cells permeable but the membranes must sustain some damage in the process. At our lab we regularly use glass bead transformation for microalgae transformation. The microabrasion allows DNA to go in so I ...


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I couldn't find any examples in humans (aside from mitochondria, if those count), but there are examples of varying degrees of intracellular endosymbiosis in insects, plants, and single-celled organisms. An example is Ca. Carsonella ruddii, an endosymbiontic bacterium of psyllids (a family of plant-feeding insects). The bacterium lives within specialized ...


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Survival of the host cell is in many cases dependent on the egress strategy of the pathogen. There are many examples documented in various species. The only case I found that's somewhat relevant to human cells was were mutant Legionella pneumophila, defective in the lytic pore complex, did not produce necrosis of the host cell. However, the cells did release ...



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