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5

When you talk about organisms like fungi and bacteria which can have a dormant form, and viruses, "dead" becomes somewhat harder to define. In fact, it has not been definitively defined for bacteria. I would have guessed "when they are permanently unable to reproduce", but I may be wrong. From one source[1]: The observed coordinated gene expression ...


3

The problem of off-targets in CRISPR/Cas is often discussed. It was shown that the system allows mismatches up to five basepairs. For your question, if it is helpful to elongate the gRNA: it was shown that truncating the RNA enhances the specificity more than elongating (see also here). So what can we do? Well, there are different methods to improve the ...


2

Definitely not. There is a ton of variation from gene to gene, otherwise, as you say, regulation wouldn't work. That said, the word "promoter" sometimes gets used in different ways. Especially in eukaryotic systems, people will sometimes say "promoter" to mean the entire region upstream of the gene where transcription factors can bind (for yeast, typically ...


1

Looks as if you'll have to do some reconstruction work building the full sequence from the information here and elsewhere in this paper: Nucleotide sequence accession numbers.The DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession numbers for the sequences reported in this paper are AB031076(the SalI-XhoI 3.0-kb fragment of pMG101), D84187(rDNA for strain S55), D86354 (rDNA for ...


1

For most laboratory spectrophotometers the path length in cuvette that holds your sample is 1 cm, and unless another path length for the light is specified you can always assume that the Beer-Lambert Law for absorption of light is using 1 cm. When growing a bacterial liquid culture in an incubator, the OD (wavelength is usually 550 nm or 600 nm) is a ...



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