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I write this as an answer instead of a comment because I don't have the reputation to do otherwise (frustrating!) even to edit my answer-which-is-now-a-comment A weak vinegar solution (maybe 1:1 ratio water and vinegar) will solve your problem and will not stink up your home. Vinegar smell evaporates very quickly and are great for areas you can't reach ...


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Fimbrae is a catch all term to denote the hairlike projections on many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria, but exludes flagella. Adhesins are a subtype of fimbrae that serve as organs of attachment to cells or mucosal surfaces. Another type of fimbrae are pili, functioning in conjugation, the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another ...


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While all pathogens act parasitically, a definitional distinction is made between Eukaryotic parasites; protists, worms, and ectoparasites such as lice, and pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and even eukaryotic fungi. The Center For Disease Control's resource on Parasites states: A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets ...


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The question is a matter of definitions. A parasite is an agent that causes harm to another agent A pathogen is an agent that causes disease to another agent. A disease is bad. Therefore, all pathogens are necessarily parasites. Note that some definitions of parasites, imply that the parasite benefits from the relationship. In which case, then the above ...


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Not all pathogens are parasites. Many opportunistic infections can be caused by organisms that are normally commensal or even mutualistic. For example, this paper describes how multiple bacteria species can be pathogenic as well as mutualistic. Despite its generally innocuous nature, over the past 20 years S. epidermidis has emerged as a frequent ...


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Not only active parasitism by pathogens, but any kind of interaction that leads to advantage of one species while causing disadvantage to the other species is considered a parasitic interaction. In this post, Remi has explained why even Batesian mimicry can be considered a parasitic interaction. The only case where a microbe could be pathogenic but ...


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One use of indirect testing is used to test for *exposure** to organisms that we wouldn't just naturally recover from as well. One example off the top of my head is HIV. The first line of testing for this infections is simply to look for antibody responses, but because it is not effectively resolved by the patient's immune response, it is important to know ...


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Membranes provide a number of benefits to organisms: 1. They represent the bounds of organism... If not for the membrane, how would you establish the (physical) limits of the organism? Would the organism be just naked DNA (I'm using this as shorthand for (genetic material')? If it made proteins from this DNA, would they be part of the organism or just ...


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Why a bi-layer? There has been an MD simulation carried out to investigate the biophysicochemistry of spontaneous bilayer assembly. There, lipids start in random orientations. The ordered bilayers we know and love spontaneously assemble in under 100ns. It would appear that the conditions for an ordered bilayer are so favourable that they take precedence ...


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if Bushmeat practices (eating meat from non-domesticated animals, in this case HIV-infected fruit bats) have been the same for centuries, why has HIV only really spread in THIS century? We can't really rule out the existence of similar epidemics in the more distant past. In fact, almost certainly they were transmission events from bushmeat (not ...


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Detection of and movement according to a gradient of a chemical species is a strategy that single cells use to track a target across space. There are very many strategies of movement depending on the cell and its environment, but a common problem that while cells can sense the concentration of chemicals, they cannot sense its gradient (the direction in which ...



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