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0

They are useful in metal mining and some recycling, but other than that biofilms can be quite harmful. They cause dental plaque, grow on surgical supplies, implants and water.


0

E. coli grows well on many types of media; I personally used Tryptone with NaCl. Many labs use E. coli for teaching purposes because it is not pathogenic and low maintenance.


0

Try thinking about places that are not very often cleaned and disinfected such as the toilet. Not only that, but the bottoms of shower curtains and in drains. Plaque on teeth is a biofilm, catheters, in/on wounds.


3

all Gram negative bacteria can potentially cause septic shock, but septic shock is not limited to Gram negative cell wall lipopolysaccharides. Any infectious agent can cause septic shock, including gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi and even viruses (this is quite evident in the recent Ebola outbreak).[1] The causative agents for sepsis/septic ...


2

The major factor defining Gram-negative (vs. Gram-positive) bacteria is the structure of the cell wall, outer membranes, and the moieties that extend out into the environment: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gram-Cell-wall.svg Gram+ bacteria have an inner plasma membrane and an outer, thick layer of peptidoglycans. This is what takes up ...


4

Is there a visual demonstration I can see of approximately how "packed full of cells" the brain actually is? Yes. You can inject tracers in the CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) or in the ventricles and monitor them. In this study, the authors have injected a fluorescent tracer in the CSF and used a direct imaging. We used in vivo two-photon imaging to ...


2

From wikipedia: In the replication process, RNAse H removes the RNA primer (created by Primase) from the lagging strand and then Polymerase I fills in the necessary nucleotides between the Okazaki fragments (see DNA replication) in 5' -> 3' direction... And elsewhere in the same article: Pol I possesses four enzymatic activities: A 5' -> 3' ...


2

Googling your question showed that it is RNAse H that removes the RNA primer. DNA Pol I has both 3'-5' as well as 5'-3' exonuclease activity for proofreading and nick repair activities, respectively. See the wiki on Pol I


3

They can certainly develop in the toilet. Just try not to disinfect for a week... Another place is the surface of living organisms, e.g. dental plaque or the leaves of a plant, etc...


0

Fermentable carbohydrates may cause problems in some IBS patients. Recent work suggests that restricting these foods may improve the symptoms in some patients. http://www.nature.com/nrgastro/journal/v11/n4/abs/nrgastro.2013.259.html More information can be found by looking for the FODMAP diet.


5

There are some recipes available on the web, my answer is based on this webpage and this information: The process itself is rather easy and you can either use ready bought apple juice, homemade juice or apple cider (basically unfiltered apple juice). You will need some specially cultivated yeast, baker's yeast is generally not recommended since it might ...


0

There is some evidence that garbage enzymes have significant enzyme activity, so they really work. The decomposable waste thrown into the environment can be used to produce value added bio-product which in turn reduces the production of greenhouse gas. Garbage enzyme is one such value added product produced by fermentation of organic solid waste. ...


2

I think only b.) is true. a. I cannot find evidence that maltose is toxic to yeasts (and I would hardly believe it, because it is a glucose dimer), however I found evidence, that yeasts might need the presence of oxygen to process maltose. 1977 - The Requirement of Oxygen for the Utilization of Maltose, Cellobiose and D-Galactose by Certain Anaerobically ...


5

Besides viral infections there are different pathways for cells to take up dsRNA. Inside the cells these dsRNA are processed by Dicer which processes these RNAs into small interfering RNA, which play an important role in the regulation of gene activity. These pathways have mostly been researched in Drosophila and C. elegans, I am indicating where evidence ...


-1

I checked citrus diseases on wikipedia, then "ctrl+f" and typed in "pink mold". The result was Gliocladium roseum which is really a pink mold, but it is hard to find any image of it, where it is on fruits... So this is just a guess. Btw. I think it is rarely possible to identify microorganisms just by checking an image of them.


1

The discussion you linked (here) shows that both researchers agree that 'garbage enzymes' are mostly acetic acid or vinegar, with a low pH(3-4). Fresh papayas contain papain, but roughly 2% of the enzyme self-digests per day in aqueous solution. Bromelain from pineapples is still active at acidic pH. Like most other proteases, it self-digests much more ...



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