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You're basically confusing the fuel source with the energy it produces. For example, a car burns gasoline. That doesn't mean that gasoline is energy, only that gasoline can be used to produce energy. Similarly, a cell uses electrons in the production of ATP (source): In the image above, electrons flow (symbolized by the flat arrow going from ...


This is a hard question to answer. Electrons and energy are different concepts. My overly succinct answer is that the movement of electrons results in free energy changes.


If you read the lines immediately following your quoted line (on p.391, left column, last paragraph in the linked article) it becomes clear what relay competent means (and I quote): As a result, the cells sense and move toward a source of cAMP, and they relay the signal as well by secreting cAMP. [..] After about 8 h of starvation randomly located cells, ...


Both are forms of immunisation. Inoculation is exactly that. A live organism is introduced in a controlled way, so as to minimise the risk of infection, and is essentially the same process followed by many people in history. It is inherently risky. Vaccination is introducing a weakened version of the pathogen, so that the immune response is triggered and ...


Adding to @CDB's answer: ...Saigusa speculates that it instead depends on an internal mechanism of some kind, perhaps involving the perpetually pulsating gelatinous contents of its one cell, known as cytoplasm. The slime mold's membrane rhythmically constricts and relaxes, keeping the cytoplasm within flowing. When the amoeba's membrane ...


What you have observed is called shuttle streaming. This is how Physarum polycephalum (I assume this is the species of slime mold in the video) and many other slime molds move. I found this here; The movement of P. polycephalum is termed shuttle streaming. Shuttle streaming is characterized by the rhythmic back-and-forth flow of the protoplasm; the time ...


It depends on your species of Neisseria. N. meningitidis grows on BAP (Blood Agar Plate), with colonies being grey and unpigmented on appearing round, smooth, moist, glistening, and convex, with a clearly defined edge You can read more about that here. N. gonorrhoeae is known not to grow on BAP. More on that here.

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