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Autotrophs: Organisms that can synthesize organic carbon from inorganic carbon (carbon fixation). Nitrogen fixation is not considered an essential condition to qualify as autotrophs. True autotrophs can fix both carbon and nitrogen (Some algae. This true autotrophs is not an actual terminology). Aerobes are organism that require oxygen for metabolism; it is ...


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Probably, it is worth to add some historic (and ironic) "perspective" to this question. It will probably explain that even without scientific research the answer to this question is probably "no" and that real use of bacterial soap should probably be reduced to hospital settings and not expanded to households as suggest promotions and commercials. The ...


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It is not necessary that all heterotrophs are aerobic. Many are anaerobes (yeast etc.) Anaerobic Heterotrophs These anaerobes live on glycolysis and fermentation (as far as I know). These two processes don't require Oxygen for release of energy. Glycolysis Alcohol Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Alcohol Fermentation takes place in yeast (just an ...


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You may be interested to look into the Old friends hypothesis, since this is related to how the human immune system may respond to reduced biodiversity in the microbiota. The basic idea is that the human immune system is developed by exposture to the microbiota, and without exposture to organisms from our evolutionary past, immune system regulation might ...


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Human immune defense response is primed by cell damage products as it does not have prior knowledge about bacterial or viral "malware". The whole purpose of disinfectant substances is damaging cells and potential organic disease carriers. As those substances are not discriminating, frequent use of them will prime your immune defense against benign organic ...


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Short answer: There is no benefit for their use in households. Long answer: These soaps (see here for the complete list) contain the so called quaternary ammonium compounds Benzalkonium chloride and Cetrimonium chloride which indeed have antimicrobial properties. While they do not promote resistance to these compounds (see reference 1), their use is still ...


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Chris has correctly identified the antibacterial agent in the hand soap depicted in the image in the question, and therefore his answer is superior as a direct answer. Nevertheless, other members of the Softsoap series of hand soap uses triclosan, 0.15% as their antibacterial agent, as seen in an image of their ingredient list on the reverse of the bottle. ...


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Yes there are many such mechanisms. One of the simplest, but perhaps most easily overlooked, is metabolism. Conjugation requires ATP. In environments with low levels of nutrients, heterotrophs might not have enough "extra" ATP to fuel the conjugation process. Note that both donor and recipient need to expend ATP in conjugation. The donor needs to make ...


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According to the Wikipedia section on bacterial capsules, they're made of the same thing: When the amorphous viscid secretion (that makes up the capsule) diffuses into the surrounding medium and remains as a loose undemarcated secretion, it is known as slime layer. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology synonymizes "slime layer" and "biofilm": A ...


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In bacteriophage, the viral capsules serve as vectors for other DNA so frequently that there is a common name for this: transduction. The image below, from the Wikipedia, illustrates the basic process. Here a phage, with pink DNA, accidentally packages up other DNA -- in this case, from the bacterium -- in one of the capsules and thereby serves as a vector ...



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