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inf3rno's comment provides a great example, in the production of vinegar (Food Safety Magazine): In the production of some fermented foods, biofilms are an essential element for optimum production. During the production of vinegar, acetic acid bacteria are allowed to grow on wood chips. The biofilm that is formed helps make the conversion of substrate to ...


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Amalgam fillings are made from an alloy. The properties of the chemical elements bound into an alloy are different than the properties of those elements in different forms. The fillings do not release any biologically significant form or biologically significant amount of either silver or mercury. They are essentially inert. Plus silver antibacterial ...


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The silver and mercury are heavy metals and absolutely poisonous. However, they are present as amalgam in fillinmgs - an alloy with various constituents including mercury and silver. As such, mercury is not as volatile as it is in its pure elementary form and is basically bound to the rest of the solid-state metals. However, it can still evaporate in small ...


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A vector transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another. Fruit bats are vectors for Ebola. They are a host to the virus, which can then be passed on to humans. Influenza A, the virus responsible for human seasonal epidemics, is not a vector for other pathogens, although co-infection with two different strains of influenza can give rise ...


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While a viral infection such as influenza can lead to secondary infections, it is inappropriate to call it a vector for those other infections. It is not the means by which those other infections are acquired. If a bacterial sinus infection follows upon a bout with the flu, that bacteria was not carried to the patient by the influenza virus. A single ...


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I wouldn't call influenza a vector here, but yes, an infection with the flu virus which results in a full infection can have secondary infections as complications. There are often caused by bacteria which usually live in the respiratory pathway and kept under control by the immune system. This includes pneumonia (either viral or bacterial), inflammation of ...


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To know if the ends are compatible see compatible cohesive ends (isoschizomers) from NEB website. If you are unsure then do a blunt end ligation. For blunting a sticky end (From the comments): Use Klenow or Pfu polymerase (or any proofreading/high fidelity polymerase). You can use Taq if you intend to to a TA cloning.


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It looks like you're very stringently avoiding $^1\mathrm{H}$. You may want to consider replica plating your transformations onto $\mathrm{D}_2\mathrm{O}$ plates (selecting for $\mathrm{D}_2\mathrm{O}$ tolerance earlier.) I assume you're doing protein NMR and want "triple labeling." Depending on how specific your carbon labelling is, you may want to grow ...


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E. coli grows well on many types of media; I personally used Tryptone with NaCl. Many labs use E. coli for teaching purposes because it is not pathogenic and low maintenance.



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