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According to the classification of sepsis, it is SIRS with a suspected or known source of infection. By definition therefore, sepsis without SIRS is not sepsis but SIRS can exist without sepsis. In all fairness though, SIRS can exist if you run for a while (elevated heart rate and respiratory rate by themselves qualify for a diagnosis of SIRS). Sepsis is ...


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If the plasmids you wish to transform are very big (more than 20kb), the co-transformation might not be very efficient (you might not get any colonies). Electroporation should work though, as electrocompetent cells are more efficient than chemically competent cells. Alternatively, as you have read, you could transform your first plasmid and select for it, ...


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Protons are pumped out of the bacterial cell by the electron tansport chain. This creates a protonmotive force with two components, one due to the difference in proton concentration, the other due to the membrane potential that is created. In bacteria and mitochondria it is the membrane potential component that provides most of the driving force to pull ...


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The problem with this is something called the structure-function relationship. The function of a protein or enzyme is completely dependent on its structure. For example, take a look at this representation of the active site of chymotrypsin: The side chains of D102, H57, and S195 all need to be in a perfect conformation in order for the enzyme to function ...


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The mechanism is likely very straightforward. Activated macrophages already in the area are releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, MIP-2, etc. These are not only important for granuloma formation, but they also recruit other immune cells to the area. However, since cord factor has this anti-migratory effect, once the cells get ...


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The Parsis and other Zoroastrians dispose of their dead in a so-called Tower of Silence, where the body is left on a raised platform to be eaten by scavengers, particularly birds such as vultures. This is possibly (probably?) the quickest way for nutrients to re-enter the wider ecosystem, as scavengers usually work a whole lot quicker than microbes. ...


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Well, with cremation comes also a lot of harmful gasses entering the atmosphere as well, and from your question, I'm assuming you're interested in eco-friendly alternatives. I've heard of organic embalming fluids, so it might be interesting to you to look into that. Also a lot of steel and cement go into a traditional burial; if you were to be buried in a ...


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I'm not sure that I have understood the question but ... HbeAg is a secreted variant of HbcAg (the core antigen of HBV). Unlike HbcAg, HbeAg is found in the blood. I believe that it is produced as a result of a splice variant of the corresponding RNA. The phenomenon described in these Figures is an example of seroconversion. Before seroconversion the ...


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Just wanted to add that this is a common problem with vaccines. ...consider an actual measles outbreak in Colorado in December 1994.5 Out of 625 children exposed to the disease, 17 got measles. Of those 609 who had previously been vaccinated, only 10 (or 1.6%) developed measles. Of the 16 children who were not immunized, 7 (or 44%) developed measles. ...


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There are two other, but rather exotic possibilites which explain why people do not develop immunity after an diphtheria infection. These are unlikely to get to 6-8% of the cases which @Masi writes, but I am missing the reference here. The first possibility are people with chronic renal failure. They have problems with their immune responses since their ...


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In this article they look at the development of natural immunity to diptheria in those who were vaccinated. I could not find any studies on people who had acquired it naturally. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X97001485 They found that the development of immunity to diptheria vaccine depended on several factors: Time lapsed since ...



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