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1

To repeat @Malijam comment, by thermal motion it is referring to the "random giggling" of molecules. Temperature difference is nothing but a change in the frequency at which molecule move randomly. This movement has no specific direction. If a given molecule is prevented from moving into one specific direction (due to attachement to another molecule) but ...


2

The good ol'electron transport chain (ETC). Before beginning let us begin by looking at the structure of a mitochondrion and the purpose of the ETC. Take of note four things: The intermembrane space The matrix The electron transport chain proteins and ATP Synthase Now lets talk about the purpose of the ETC, essentially its job is to create a H+ ...


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In addition to the long and complete answer above, I want to point out something extra that is missing in the explanation: The proton gradient works both ways (like all gradients). Lowering the external pH is not the only way to create a gradient, increasing the internal pH also works perfectly fine.


4

Diffusion, is by definition (Ficks Law) describing movement along or against some gradient (here its concentration) even if the mechanism of transport differ: active, passive, facilitated. The setup of the electrochemical gradient across membrane, like any thermodynamic process is not perfect, there are always entropy losses. In this case, this manifests as ...


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It seems like the mistake is in complex III. Look at this image from here: It clearly shows the number of protons reduced in (and taken from) matrix and number of protons pumped into inter-membrane space. So the data becomes: Complex I: matrix: 2H+ reduced (from NADH + H+) + 2H+ pumped out IMS: 4H+ pumped in Complex II: matrix: 2H+ reduced (from ...



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