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11

Your individual questions here are reasonable enough - although you could do a bit better at knowing some more details of the systems you are dismissing as 'flawed'. However, I think the bigger problem is your overall approach, which seems to be to make analogies between human-made computers and biological systems and then critiquing the 'missing' parts from ...


8

In programming, if you need to ensure your data has integrity, a single array won't do. We have cyclic dependency checks in programing to determine if the data is corrupt. We have hamming codes to permit detecting a fixing one bit corruption. If we want to really fix multi-bit corruption, we need at least one copy of the data. Lossless compression ...


3

Short answer The spindle is made up of microtubules Background From Nature: Spindle fibers form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell. [...] At the beginning of nuclear division, two wheel-shaped protein structures called centrioles position themselves at opposite ends of the cell forming cell poles. Long protein fibers ...


3

For a male, one primary spermatocyte produces two secondary spermatocytes through meiosis I, which in turn produce two spermatids each through meiosis II. So one primary spermatocyte produces four spermatids. That means that $x$ spermatids are produced after $x/4$ meiotic divisions consisting of once meiosis I and twice meiosis II. However, we don't count ...


3

At the start everyone is 2n, diploid cells. By far the largest difference between Meiosis I and Mitosis is that mitosis results in genetically identical, diploid somatic cells. Meiosis, in it's entirety, results in gametes of haploid genetic information, but the genetic information is not identical due to crossing-over events that happened during meiosis I. ...


2

What are golgi? Stacked array in the cisternae which are ought to connect vesicles and tubules Made of >1000 different proteins Has the ability to transform/alter in response to a cellular stimulation such as mitosis Fragmentation of golgi during mitosis During interphase, the Golgi receives secretory cargo from the ER via the COP II vesicle ...


2

The short answer: no. First, let's get an understanding of the cell cycle control system, as there are some important molecules involved in this system that regulate mitosis. Think of the control system as a series of stoplights: as you mention, there is one stoplight at the G2 phase. There are two additional checkpoints: one at G1 and one in the M (mitotic) ...


1

Yes, each single chromosome came from one parent. However, it is not true that each chromosome came from one grandparent. Due to crossing over in meiosis, the copy of Chr 1 that you got from your father is partially from his father, and partially from his mother. And the same for all the rest of your chromosomes. You will not pass on a whole chromosome ...


1

No homologous chromosomes do not imply that each cell has genetic information from only one parent. Let's just talk about one chromosome - and call it Chr1. This chromosome has genes A, B, C, D, and E. When an egg is fertilized by a sperm, the resulting egg will have a pair of Chr1. One of the Chr1 would have come from the mother (egg) and the other from ...


1

Actually, the answer is not obvious. @RoSiv gives the textbook case of symmetric cell division, where the two new cells can indeed be considered identical, and this is valid in many cases. But there are also cases of asymmetric cell division, where the "mother" and "daughter" cell are clearly different. In asymmetric cell division, the parent cell is ...



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