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The straight forward answer is: we don't know. We don't have any direct evidence for what happened at that time nor any completely developed and coherent theories for how it worked. The widely believed hypothesis is the "RNA World" hypothesis. RNA, unlike DNA, is capable of spontaneously folding to form catalytic molecules and thus avoids the needs for ...


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The vector used in this study is based on the herpes simplex virus genome (HSV). Wildtype HSV mainly infects sensory neurons. After infection, it resides in a latent state in the nervous systems of the host for a lifetime. The viral genome persists in the cell, without integrating into the host genome (Marconi et al., 2000). The article cited is devoid of ...


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Just rename the file to .pdb - in other words, .ent files are PDB format: The archival PDB files will be distributed with the reserved conventional names, in the form pdbentry_id.ent, where entry_id is a PDB 4-letter code, e.g. pdb1abc.ent, for PDB format entries; rentry_idsf.ent, e.g. r1abcsf.ent, for X-ray experimental data; entry_id.mr, e.g. 1abc.mr, ...


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4. Forever contain both DNAs Yes, the donor kidney still has (and will remain to have) the donor's DNA. That is irrelevant to the acceptance and continued functioning of the organ, though. The thing that could make an organ transplant fail is the recipient's immune system. If it detects the organ as "alien", it will attack it like any other foreign ...


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Oversimplifying: DNA is a specific form of molecule (desoxyribonucleic acid). Genome is the information of a specific organism stored on its DNA. (Not just his genes, i.e. the information in the coding parts of his chromosomes, but the whole of it.) With just a little bit of scientific handwaving, you could conceivably synthesise DNA molecules that are ...


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DNA is any piece of DNA. Genome is a very specific piece (or pieces) of DNA: all of the DNA contained inside one cell, or organelle, or virus particle, from a specific species. For a species with a single chromosome, like the bacterium, E. coli, then the bacterial genome is equivalent to the cell's chromosome. Same for a virus. For a metazoan, like C. ...


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Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder where autoreactive attack on the actual thyroid tissue results in hypothyroidism. Pyzik et al., 2015, provides a good review of what we know about HT. The prevailing theory is that nonspecific infection can induce HLA expression on thyroid cells through the action of interferon gamma. HLA is an ...


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The term noise can mean a number of different (more or les related) things is used in a number of different fields such as signal processing, psychology and statistics. Outside of its context, it is impossible to say for certitude what you professors were referring to. The quotations below come from wikipedia > Communication noise, wikipedia > Statistical ...


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The major hurdle for novel treatments to make it into humans is the assessment of its merits and added value over existing, proven treatments. And more importantly, the safety for humans has to be validated to a sufficient extent. The notorious from bench to bedside (Goldblatt & Lee, 2010) bottle neck. To answer your questions: Technically, going from ...



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