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7

Those (really cool) pictures are created by David Goodsell using custom-written software. From an interview to the artist: PDB: How do you create the illustrations? Goodsell: Most of the pictures are created with a computer program that I developed back when I was doing postdoctoral work with Dr. Art Olson here at The Scripps Research Institute. ...


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Here are some examples: electric oscillators: neural activity cardiac automatism (0.8 ... 1 Hz) mechanical oscillators (as a result of neural activity): heart beats breathing (0.2 ... 0.3 Hz) intestinal peristaltic waves vocal chords activity (up to a few kHz) muscular spasm (pathological) chemical oscillators: insulin variation in concordance with ...


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I'm no expert at this and I would welcome any changes to this post. First you need to decide, what your target organism which you want to infect is (e.g. mammalian cells, bacterial cells) and based on that you choose your viral vector as listed in this article. Generally for mammalian cell stable transfection (usually you want the genetic materials you ...


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I have done that and it works without any problems. We harvested the cultures at the optimal timepoint (density) and then froze them to do maxipreps later on. Therefore we simply thawed the culture, made sure it didn't got too warm (meaning we worked on ice) and then simply followed the maxiprep protocol. No problems with yield or quality of the plasmide. ...


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Consider this as a summary of the previous answers. Also, I am elaborating more on how to make self-sustaining mutated viruses Points to consider before you think about working with viruses:- Viruses are pathogenic and the biologist working on them faces a risk of infection. Viral work is always carried out in a protected environment at high biosafety ...


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Keegan's answer is good I gave it an up vote. I want to offer a valid alternative. Psychology may induce redundant pathways which trigger approximate simultaneous firing of neurons near or in completely different parts of the brain. Emotionally intense memories can trigger emotions, basically hallucinations of the event, smells and touch based ...


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A mechanical stimulus can act on a tissue with elastic and viscoelastic properties in two ways [1, 2]: distort the cellular membrane which leads to opening of ion channels. create tension on the extracellular matrix or cytoskeleton, to which a ion channel is bound, thus leading to opening of the channel. Stretch-activated ion channels opening leads to ...


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Positive co-operativity without feedback from the downstream genes: I guess Polycomb/Trithorax complexes will fit this criterion nicely. Polycomb group (PcG) represses Hox and other differentiation related genes (such as neurogenin) while Trithorax (TrxG) group promotes their expression. They are not like usual transcription factors that bind to promoters ...


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RNAeasy kit will not usually give phenolic contamination. Your poor 260/230 is perhaps because of low yield; check the absolute absorbance values. Low 260/230 (and low yield) also happens because of improper lysis. I would advise that you do the cell lysis using more effective methods. I would not advise another phenol-chloroform or alcohol precipitation ...


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Heterochromatin profile is of course different in different cells but I am not sure if absolute heterochromatin content will vary greatly. This DNAse hypersensitivity region data is for human cells but same principles apply to all organisms. If I have to take a guess then I would say that quiescent cells are likely to have more heterochromatin. ...


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I'll add on to shigeta's and RickardSjogren's answer. Firstly, I agree that the upper limit for Forster interaction distance is ~ 10-11 nm due to the rapid fall off of the effect. If I infer from your question correctly, you seem to be asking how to confirm a lack of FRET interaction is a result of no interction, or steric hindrance. Classical methods of ...


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The answer is to perform a FRET experiment. FRET is most commonly used to find out whether something is nearby something else in this range. Its chosen as a technique when two points of attachment for FRET probes might be within 20 nm, but are not known to be, or might be only in certain conditions. There are some rules of thumb though. 1 nm, or 10 ...


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To get an elaborate answer on this one, I guess you should ask at physics. Very basically, FRET works by that an excited chromophore transfers energy to a nearby chromophore, through dipole-dipole coupling, which in turn emits energy (light) which can be detected. This is a quantum mechanic effect, i.e. these are very small energies. The emission energy ...


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I would not start from so bottom as Bez in making viruses. This is very very long project. It is much less cumbersome task to consider modifying virus, since it already occurs passively in real life. I would choose equipment based on the characteristics of the virus. I would start to develop equipment needed for the specific project, since there is no ...



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