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Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) can potentially discriminate between endogenous and exogenous DNA: Microbial nucleic acids can be discriminated from self nucleic acids using various parameters, such as their sequence, their tertiary structure, their molecular modifications and their localization. In addition, mislocalized DNA and RNA can be an ...


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With good technique, you can reliably perform RT-PCR or RT-qPCR on a sample size of about 100 cells. Some of the comments are correct that you will need to compensate for the reduction of the initial cell input with additional PCR cycles. However, each magnitude in reduction of cells corresponds to about 3 extra PCR cycles (2^3 = 8 ~= 10), so your overall ...


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The video response is more accurate. In particular, saying that the activation barrier is high enough for the reaction not to occur spontaneously in water means that the activation energy is much higher than the thermal energy, $k_B T$, where $k_B$ is Boltzmann's constant and $T$ is the temperature. You ask, "How do cells control how ATP is used?". As ...


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You can consider use of single-cell RT-qPCR kits such as this one if you have the budget for them. (Note: I have not personally used this kit, just putting out an idea) The Ambion® Single Cell-to-CT™ Kit contains a complete validated workflow for gene expression analysis for samples containing 1–10 cells. Each kit contains reagents for sample ...


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High and low are not very descriptive since they are relative. ATP hydrolysis may have a high activation energy compared to some reactions and low when compared to others. The important point is that the activation energy is sufficiently high enough such that ATP is not rapidly hydrolysed under physiological conditions before it can do useful work. In other ...


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The polymerase used in PCR is extremely stable at room temperature. I would expect you to be able to continue your PCR reaction from the cycle it was stopped at without too much trouble. However, it is important to not over cycle your product. This will produce non-specific products. If a clean result is imperative, take a 1-5ul sample from your original ...


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In this case you can run your PCR for another 18 cycles (if your total number of cycles was 30). However, do the initial denaturation for 1-2min. You may run the same program again (full 30 cycles) but you'll just end up wasting time because after a point all the dNTPs and primers would be exhausted and further cycles will have no effect on the concentration ...


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That module represents Entner-Duodoroff pathway, which is an alternative pathway to the Embden-Mayerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis. Entner-Duordoff pathway exists only in prokaryotes.


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I assume that you transfected the plasmid directly not producing viruses. If you want stable transformants, you might want to subculture them and maintain a bit longer. It is because efficiency of integration of plasmids into genome could not be that high--less than 0.1% of population obtain stable resistance by integration into genome. After 6 days, cells ...


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My understanding is that these statistics show the coverage for each KEGG Module in the particular phylogenetic group. For example, M00001, is found in 275 of the eukaryotic organisms in KEGG (which represents 90.5% of the eukaryotes in KEGG). The same logic applies for other groups. An quick example demonstrating this hypothesis, done with the Protists ...


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All biomolecules are eventually broken down. This process is called turnover. Since inositol is a signalling molecule it is necessary to remove in order to terminate the signal, despite adaptive mechanism in the ER calcium channels. IP3 is generally dephosphorylated by a family of phosphatase enzymes called inositol polyphosphate phosphatases. After ...



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