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1) Does crossing over occur between gene loci, or can it occur within them? The cross-over events can happen within genes in introns and/or exons and still lead to viable gametes. The text is stating that it's the increased length from introns that increases the probability of a cross-over event there, which is basically true. This is simplified, and ...


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One or both pairs of homologous chromosomes could exchange genetic material during the process of crossing over. The number of cross-over events depends on the number of chiasmata. There are also ways for meiosis to occur with no exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. The image you reference at uic.edu is incorrect. The purple arms ...


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Crossing over primarily happens because of homologous recombination (HR). From the molecular point of view, it can happen between any homologous regions and it is not necessary that an entire allele has to be crossed over. During the process of HR, a DNA double strand break occurs. This is followed by resection (exonucleolytic degradation of one of the ...


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These regions, if unannotated, are simply called intergenic regions. Sometimes, if a large section of chromatin is regulated by an enhancer/silencer/locus control element, then there are boundary elements that demarcate this chromatin region and prevent the spread of the chromatin state to neighbouring regions.


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(A quick answer to a question that will be likely closed being not well focused on the physics of all this) First: the ribosome translates mRNA into the chain of amino acids that eventually will become a protein. The ribosome is a huge complex, made of both proteins and RNA. RNA can have enzymatic activity like a protein: the ribosome is a Ribozyme. This ...


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Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder where autoreactive attack on the actual thyroid tissue results in hypothyroidism. Pyzik et al., 2015, provides a good review of what we know about HT. The prevailing theory is that nonspecific infection can induce HLA expression on thyroid cells through the action of interferon gamma. HLA is an ...


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The straight forward answer is: we don't know. We don't have any direct evidence for what happened at that time nor any completely developed and coherent theories for how it worked. The widely believed hypothesis is the "RNA World" hypothesis. RNA, unlike DNA, is capable of spontaneously folding to form catalytic molecules and thus avoids the needs for ...


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I would say impossible is a stretch. An inventive biochemist could create molecules that are "complimentary" to each amino acid similar to a Dna polymerase. Then a protein would be needed to both detect and translate this similarity into protein elongation. Unlikely, hell yes, impossible, no.


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Oversimplifying: DNA is a specific form of molecule (desoxyribonucleic acid). Genome is the information of a specific organism stored on its DNA. (Not just his genes, i.e. the information in the coding parts of his chromosomes, but the whole of it.) With just a little bit of scientific handwaving, you could conceivably synthesise DNA molecules that are ...


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4. Forever contain both DNAs Yes, the donor kidney still has (and will remain to have) the donor's DNA. That is irrelevant to the acceptance and continued functioning of the organ, though. The thing that could make an organ transplant fail is the recipient's immune system. If it detects the organ as "alien", it will attack it like any other foreign ...


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DNA is any piece of DNA. Genome is a very specific piece (or pieces) of DNA: all of the DNA contained inside one cell, or organelle, or virus particle, from a specific species. For a species with a single chromosome, like the bacterium, E. coli, then the bacterial genome is equivalent to the cell's chromosome. Same for a virus. For a metazoan, like C. ...


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Inhibition is rarely binary - it's almost always subjected to stoichiometric effects. So the answer could be either option, depending on the amount of the inhibitor present in the system. If there is a huge amount of the inhibitor in the cell, it may more or less completely ablate ATP production by the ETC. On the other hand, if there isn't enough of the ...


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BWA-mem (like most aligners), takes a normal single-stranded fasta file (I've never seen one with both strands listed) and aligns to both strand.


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The term noise can mean a number of different (more or les related) things is used in a number of different fields such as signal processing, psychology and statistics. Outside of its context, it is impossible to say for certitude what you professors were referring to. The quotations below come from wikipedia > Communication noise, wikipedia > Statistical ...


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The major hurdle for novel treatments to make it into humans is the assessment of its merits and added value over existing, proven treatments. And more importantly, the safety for humans has to be validated to a sufficient extent. The notorious from bench to bedside (Goldblatt & Lee, 2010) bottle neck. To answer your questions: Technically, going from ...


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The vector used in this study is based on the herpes simplex virus genome (HSV). Wildtype HSV mainly infects sensory neurons. After infection, it resides in a latent state in the nervous systems of the host for a lifetime. The viral genome persists in the cell, without integrating into the host genome (Marconi et al., 2000). The article cited is devoid of ...


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Chaotropic agents are cosolutes that can disrupt the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules and reduce the stability of the native state of proteins by weakening the hydrophobic effect. a chaotropic agent reduces the amount of order in the structure of a protein formed by water molecules, both in the bulk and the hydration shells around hydrophobic ...


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Just rename the file to .pdb - in other words, .ent files are PDB format: The archival PDB files will be distributed with the reserved conventional names, in the form pdbentry_id.ent, where entry_id is a PDB 4-letter code, e.g. pdb1abc.ent, for PDB format entries; rentry_idsf.ent, e.g. r1abcsf.ent, for X-ray experimental data; entry_id.mr, e.g. 1abc.mr, ...


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In replication you have 2 strands made. In transcription you have 1 strand made. Transcription uses ONLY the 3' → 5' DNA strand. This eliminates the need for the Okazaki fragments seen in DNA replication (on the lagging strand). And it removes the need for a RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis, as is the case in DNA replication. Edit; instead RNA ...



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