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Actin is required for the neurite architecture and is present throughout the shaft (along the direction of the neurite process) See these images.                                                           ...


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This is a general answer for all three of your related questions: This one How does Temperature influences the rate of protein turnover? How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature? Since you said: I want to simulate the evolution of genetic architecture when after a sudden change in temperature or in an environment that is ...


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base on a article they do the test of nano-Pt, kind of SOD, and they do the experiment in several steps, first choose C. elegans strains and growth conditions, meanwhile prepare the nano-pt. then, do the lifespan assay. thired is Oxidative stress resistance. the last step is Fluorescence microscopy. in the mictoscopy they do several steps, include ...


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You can simply add the molecule of interest in the NGM or Liquid medium. From this paper. The worms were bleach-synchronized as follows: 2 mL of 6% NaOCl were mixed with 1 mL of 5 M NaOH per 7.5 mL of concentrated worm suspension, and shaken for 4–7 minutes until the carcasses dissolved as monitored by direct observation. The remaining eggs were ...


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From my readings, it seems that when procaspases 8 or 10 are unavailable, the cell will shift to necroptosis. What makes these procaspases unavailable and why does a cell second the necropotosis? This seems to be right. Mice with a conditional deletion of caspase-8 in the intestinal epithelium (Casp8ΔIEC) spontaneously developed inflammatory ...


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You can also try Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry...It covers all the topic except the part about cell motility...& possibly, the 1-A-g ( I'm not too sure about it)...but the book is for pretty advanced levels...& I would not recommend it as a last minute reference book..but for thorough study it's great....& of course it's my personal ...


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Stryer's Biochemistry is a great book that pretty much covers all the requirements except those in A1 - Those are basic chemistry concepts which are not covered in Stryer. Any basic chemistry book will cover that. Make sure to verify, one-by-one, that all the test subjects are covered in Stryer. This answer is just a recommendation for a great Biochemistry ...


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As you have mentioned ions and temperature affect RNA structure. There are also different types of RNA structures and their dependence on ions are different. Mg2+, as Mad Scientist mentioned, stabilizes duplexes; so do monovalent cations like K+ and Na+. However, Mg2+ favors duplex over quadruplex if the same RNA can adopt both these conformations. ...


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Check these out. They provide the functionality that you want: ApE SnapGene viewer


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I have read that cohesin is one of such enzymes, but works as a transcription factor by binding specific DNA motifs. Cohesin binding is not motif dependent (like transcription factors) and is also dynamic. Though sequence may have a role it is, just as in the case of nucleosomes, mostly the overall composition rather than a sequence based motif: ...


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Is there a visual demonstration I can see of approximately how "packed full of cells" the brain actually is? Yes. You can inject tracers in the CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) or in the ventricles and monitor them. In this study, the authors have injected a fluorescent tracer in the CSF and used a direct imaging. We used in vivo two-photon imaging to ...


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One of the chief components of centrosome is γ-Tubulin. In this study the authors have reported the effect of γ-Tubulin knockout in mice. Quoting the abstract: Gamma-tubulin regulates the nucleation of microtubules, but knowledge of its functions in vivo is still fragmentary. Here, we report the identification of two closely related gamma-tubulin ...


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The fastest will change as time passes and better technologies are developed. I think the fastest method existing at the moment is Shotgun Mutagenesis (provided by Integral Molecular Inc). This does not employ any new method of doing that. They just provide a set of plasmids, that has all the possible mutations. The set itself is generated by automated ...


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                                                    Image is of an 18% Tris-tricine small-peptide ...


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Catalysis is about reducing the free energy barrier (aka. activation energy) of a reaction, so it does not require any energy. In photolysis (e.g. splitting water) you get the energy from the absorbed photons. The exact process is called the Joliot-Kok cycle: Figure 1 - Joliot-Kok cycle - source So the photon separates the charges on the P680, after ...


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Generally speaking, heterochromatin or euchromatin structures mark specific regions to regulate the transcriptional activity and these marks carry the signature of developmental processes as they differ in different tissues (or cell types). Therefore, we should not ignore the developmental processes if we want to understand how such epigenetic marks are ...


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As far as I know there are ongoing efforts to find genes that affect forensically relevant traits e.g. facial characteristics and fingerprint pattern type/ridge count, and it's definitely a topic of interest to some law enforcement agencies. However as previously mentioned, there are many factors that could influence complex traits, including in utero ...


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As @Chris says, the charge depends on the pH: when the pH is different from the pH(I) of the molecule, this one is charged.(Take a look at this). Anyway, talking about Hys, its pH(I) is 7.47 (here), so at a pH below its pI, the Histidine carry a net positive charge, otherwise it can be also in a netrual form. Obviously it's all a matter of equilibrium!


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As @wysiwig stated, Histidine is not hydrophobic. Depending on the pH different parts of the molecule can carry charges, see the image below (from here): The nitrogen atoms can be protonated in an acidic environment, the carboxylgroup will loose it proton in a basic environment. All these forms are transferred into each other, when the pH changes.


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Besides viral infections there are different pathways for cells to take up dsRNA. Inside the cells these dsRNA are processed by Dicer which processes these RNAs into small interfering RNA, which play an important role in the regulation of gene activity. These pathways have mostly been researched in Drosophila and C. elegans, I am indicating where evidence ...


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DNA transcription has transcription factors that help facilitate where The RNA polyerase should go and what direction it should go. In a sense, these transcription factors could be considered your primers but its a protein complex not a nucleotide sequence.


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Wobble pairing is just a phenomenon and not a hard and fast rule. There are some justifications for why it should exist and that is why it is still called a hypothesis. And this statement is not true:"the base on the third position of the codon and that on the anticodon need not be complementary". The anticodon residue corresponding to the third residue of ...


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There are some tools for predicting the binding: TargetScan (based on seed match [primary], extra pairing, sequence context 1 — nucleotide composition around the site etc [secondary]) miRanda (based on hybridization stability and seed match[primary] and sequence context [secondary]) PicTar (adds a layer of evolutionary conservation criteria) 1 Context ...


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I would thoroughly check the literature on the UTR you are interested in, a lot of this has already been done for many genomic regions since nextgen seq began. You will want to first off use computational prediction algorithms to help guide you in getting a good Candidate list of miRNAs The interaction between a miRNA and its target mRNAs is usually ...


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This question is at least two questions. Dividing cells In terms of a dividing human cell line, every time a division occurs the telomeres capping the ends of the chromosomes get a little bit shorter. Once the telomeres get short enough they act as a signal that triggers apoptosis, destroying the cell. There is some human-to-human variation in the initial ...



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