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The issue of IBD and IBS can indeed be confusing. The identity by state definition refers to the fact that at some point two individuals, even if they are not related to each other, present the same allele at a specific locus. Because of their un-relatedness this similarity probably arose from a similar mutational event. On the other side, with IBD two ...


"Stingers in bees evolved from ovipositors", here is a good reference of how bee stinger have evolved.


A honey bee's barbed stinger remains in the skin of any mammal afterwards due to its elasticity (skin closes back around the base after penetration) but can be retracted after stinging another insect. It isn't a human-specific thing. Presumably this is because it takes more toxin to dissuade a mammalian predator than an insect. A little dose of toxin is ...

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