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I think the key work here is 'evolve'. Overall GC/AT ratios change by mutations, whose rate is constant. The probability that given a mutation event that one base will be substituted by another one has been modeled in several ways where the probabilities of different mutations may or may not be the same. Overall the GC content will tend to close to 50%. ...


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Some elements of response to your question. First, something about tRNA frequency. Even if there are six codons for a given amino acid, they are not equivalent because some will correspond to abundant tRNA, while others correspond to very minor tRNA. This has significant influence on the traduction speed, as the traduction will dramatically slow down on ...


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Some bacteriophages adsorb on the pili. So the individuals carrying the F-element will be susceptible to these. F-plasmid encoded membrane protein PifA is responsible for the T7 resistance [See here]. The exact mechanism is not known If you see the list of references in the textbook chapter you will be able to trace the reference for a certain quoted fact ...


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It means that the direction in which the normal double-strand is wound up (which is also helical) and the direction on which the double helix itself is twited to reach the supercoils are opposite to each other. Have a look at this image from the Wikipedia, I think it makes this clearer: The first show a DNA ring with the normal helix-coiling. The second ...


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The process is described here. This is my summary, plus a few extra details: The primary gene product of the INS gene is preproinsulin. As the N-terminal signal sequence (pre-) emerges from the ribosome during polypeptide elongation the signal sequence binds to a signal recognition particle which arrests elongation until the nascent chain has engaged with ...



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