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Bhattacharyya M, Martin C, Smith A. 1993. The importance of starch biosynthesis in the wrinkled seed shape character of peas studied by Mendel. Plant Mol Bio 22(3):525-531 Abstract: The wrinkled-seed mutant (rr) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) arose through mutation of the gene encoding starch-branching enzyme isoform I (SBE1) by insertion of a ...


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This answer also involves some speculations as the question is about a good theoretical framework for a science fiction. You can find in this post about how sperm can be used to produce embryonic stem cells. It would still require an oocyte for doing that. The question now is- Can you produce oocytes from a male? You may fuse two X bearing haploid ...


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Theoretically this should be possible as men carry both sex chromosomes. You would have to find a way to make haploid cells and then have them form a diploid cell with two x chromosomes. Your population would go through a genetic bottleneck which would soon cause a lot of other genetic problems as there is not enough variety. But besides this rather ...


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A woman (assuming no mosaicism) has two X chromosomes in the nuclei of her cells (except for oocytes). A man, in every cell with a nucleus (except for spermatocytes), has only one, pluripotent or not. The only way he could make a female would be to either manipulate cells by duplicating the X chromosome (very difficult to do) or remove/inactivate the Y ...


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I think you are overestimating how these cfDNA tests work. Maybe I read the paper wrong, but from what I read of one technique (Sequenom's MaterniT21 test) there is no purification of fetal DNA. They do restriction digests to assess the percentage of fetal DNA, but I don't think they enrich for the fetal DNA when they sequence. The library they make is ...


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Since b/w screening is a selection step, you want maximum selection pressure. This will be obtained by incorporating all optimal conditions. The many enzymes of the lac operon are going to function best at their optimal temp. Why would you do this? If it is because you can't go in the next day it's better to do it when you're available. You're only going to ...


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In lay man terms you need your DNA to remain intact and protected. so instead of shipping it to the cytoplasm where a lot can happen to it, the cell makes an intermediate mRNA. if anything does wrong with mRNA, the cell can discard it and make another copy and after translation the copy of mRNA is also discarded.You also have the amplification; instead of ...


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I don't have a lot of references for this, but it's too long for a comment. Separating the roles of RNA and DNA helps to better control protein production and gene replication. If ribosomes worked directly on DNA, it would probably be very hard to replicate that DNA, as the DNA polymerases would collide with the ribosomes. You'd have to stop protein ...


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One reason is that an intermediate like mRNA allows for higher amounts of protein expression. You can have multiple mRNA molecules that are translated simultaneously. If you read directly from DNA you can have at most two translations in parallel. I'm not sure about this, but I would imagine that having to unwind the DNA double strand every time for ...



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