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The region in the mRNA upstream of the start site is 5' UTR; 5' untranslated region. Sometimes, UTRs have regulatory functions. Or, the UTR mutation might just be along for the ride, and have no effect at all. You generally can't look at a non coding SNP and tell if it's functional with no other information unless it messes with one of the first few bases ...


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There are several mechanisms by which the expression of a gene can be completely turned off. Certain network architectures can ensure foolproof repression (for e.g. by using multiple repressors parallely or additional epigenetic silencing mechanisms). Bistable switches can also ensure robustness of expression in a way that small fluctuations in the ...


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Replication refers to DNA replication and division refers to the cell division. Yes it is true that, in E.coli replication can be slower than the division time. This is a well known problem in molecular genetics. The bacterium copes up with this by having a partially replicated genome during the beginning of the "cell cycle". So there are actually two ...


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I am unsure if I really understand the question. Are you wondering how the rate of DNA replication can be slower than the rate of cell division if every daughter cell needs a chromosome copy? If so, keep in mind that prokaryotes have different origins of replication on their chromosome so that DNA replication can actually be parallelised. Cooper (1968) ...


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You call it a thought experiment but something like this has actually been done. Not entirely similar as they don't switch 2, but still they replace a codon. An overview: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expanded_genetic_code Big thing: in the two articles leading up to this one they replaced all 314 UAG stop codons in E.coli K12 and used the now unused UAG ...


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Hasn’t your question already been answered by those organisms (and organelles) that have a different genetic code from the standard genetic code (originally known as ‘universal’)? Essentially they have performed the experiment for you by developing machinery to decode mRNA differently (transfer RNAs with appropriately different anticodon/amino-acid accepting ...


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On one hand, designing an experiment which would kill (and resurrect) a cell is not possible: once a cell malfunctions, it's likely damaged beyond repair. However, other than that I don't think this experiment kind of cannot actually be done. You would just have to simultaneously expose different cultures (grown in the same conditions) to different inserted ...


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At the command line: wget ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-84/gtf/gasterosteus_aculeatus/Gasterosteus_aculeatus.BROADS1.84.gtf.gz gunzip Gasterosteus_aculeatus.BROADS1.84.gtf.gz Then in R: library(GenomicFeatures) txdb = makeTxDbFromGFF("Gasterosteus_aculeatus.BROADS1.84.gtf") hist(log10(width(unique(exons(txdb))))) # exons hist(log10(width(unique(...



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