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Originally the position had a G:C pair. After the mutation, there is an oxoG:C pair. Upon replication, the strand with C will pair to G and the original pair will be created as expected. However, since oxoG can also pair with A, the strand with oxoG may form an oxoG:A pair. Another round of replication gives the products T:A and oxoG:A. Thus the G in the ...


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Recap of the question: Looking at a single locus trait ($A$) controlled by two alleles, $A_1$ and $A_2$, the phenotypic mean is only affected by inbreeding depression, $f$ (Wright's inbreeding coefficient), if there is some degree of dominance, $d$. Why? Answer: If we take inbreeding as a higher than expected frequency of homozygotes, such that if the ...


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This is somewhat tricky, so one has to pay close attention to the definitions involved. First of all, some definitions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatin): Simple and concise definition: Chromatin is a macromolecular complex of a DNA macromolecule and protein macromolecules (and RNA). The proteins package and arrange the DNA and control its ...


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This is a question which is not easy to answer, especially the 50.000bp number (which I haven't found anywhere in there literature). However, I found some evidence, partly derived from plant and mammal artificial chromosomes (references 1 and 2), partly from the original publication from Murray and colleagues (reference 3). The problems with small ...


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I assume that we are talking about eukaryotic genomes which are split into introns and exons. Depending on what you want to do with your cloned gene, you need different strategies. The method is based on the assumption that the gene sequence has only very little differences to the known sequences of other organisms. If you want to express your gene from a ...


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I also got 624. Maybe the answer is incorrect. My processing is: Each codon has four bases, the species contain five unique nucleotides, so for the first position in the codon, there are 5 possible results, also, for the second position in the codon, there are 5 possible results, it is same in third and forth position, so the result should be ...


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Prokaryotic primases are activated by DNA helicase [1, 2] while the eukaryotic ones are triggered when they form a complex with DNA polymerase alpha and its accessory B subunit [2]. I couldn't find too much information about what exactly triggers activation, but according to De Falco M et al. (2004): [...] synthetic function (of the prokaryotic primase) ...


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A mutation is a change in the genetic code - this can either be in the DNA or for viruses also in the RNA which carries their genetic information. This can either happen due to external influences (chemicals, radiation) or internal (mistakes while copying the information) reasons. See the figure below which shows the principle: DNA based lifeforms usually ...


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This is a theoretical consideration, as PCR depends on a number of factors as optimal priming, salt concentration, enzyme activity, available dNTPs and so on. Ideally the number of DNA molecules is doubled with every cycle. So the general formula to calculate the number is: $ n \times 2^{cycles} = $ number of DNA molecules at the end of the PCR n is the ...


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The term intergenic is more or less obsolete now. In fact it is ironical to say that a gene, which can give rise to a functional protein or an RNA, is expressed from an intergenic region. However the usage continues for both lncRNAs and miRNAs (other major type of ncRNA in metazoans1 - piRNAs have different classification). lncRNAs are vaguely classified as ...



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