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DNA is a polymer of dNMPs (dAMP, dTMP, dCMP, and dGMP). That's why you could describe DNA by dNMPn (n base length). When another dNTP is added to DNA (dNMPn), one pyrophosphate (PPi) is released. It is obvious that the length of the DNA results in n+1 bases.


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The notation you are referring to is a way to express the elongation of a nucleotide strand (Fig. 1). dNTP + dNMP(n) → dNMP(n+1) + PPi means Existing strand + deoxynucleotidetriphosphate → elongated-strand + pyrophospate. Fig. 1. Elongation of DNA. Source: Concepts in Genetics. This reaction holds for DNA replication as well as ...


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Practically, there is an obvious barrier to changes in chromosome number: haploid cells produced by diploids must contain exactly one copy of each chromosome (or chromosome section, or locus). Otherwise over- or under- expression of genes can lead to dosage problems. Across all of diploids some large groups show strong conservation of number of chromosomes ...


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Mutations in DNA or RNA sequences do not necessarily result in significant changes in the functions of the proteins they encode (or in the case of RNA ribozymes, ribozyme function ). This is because, for a variety of reasons, the change in DNA/RNA sequence may not significantly alter the structure and function of the ribozyme/protein (the function that ...


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It seems you are confused with some other gene instead of caspase 9, but if KO of some gene causes development of breast cancer, and you want to compare something between none-cancerous and cancerous states, you could take several ways: See if you could have littermates carrying and not carrying cancer. You could compare them. Sometimes, phenotype do not ...


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The short answer is that it is likely a bad experiment; being that it would be expensive and is not likely to provide useful new information. The long answer (i.e. why) is identifying an interesting target gene (e.g. caspase-9 in breast cancer) is only the first step, and considerable study of what is already known is required before planning an experiment ...



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