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For skeletal muscles, you'll find a discussion in the Physics SE: http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/1984/why-does-holding-something-up-cost-energy-while-no-work-is-being-done To make things short: while holding a position, muscles need to maintain a given length. However, internally, the muscle looks like a collapsible array of filaments, with ...


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You should note that even in pure mechanical examples, the energy consumed may not be equal to work done because some energy is also used up in countering the frictional force. In your example you consider an object kept on a wooden table and in this case the weight is balanced by the reaction force by the table. You have not considered the material ...


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Indeed, a paper was published in 2011 regarding the same for humans by using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure carnosine content. A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by 1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference ...



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