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The regulation of metabolites and signals in general (glucose (Glc) or FFA in this case) and their selective uptake by cells, depends on the number (from few hundreds to many thousands) of receptors expressed and displayed to the surrounding environment, the type of receptors (what they can bind, and do as a result) and their properties. The regulation of ...


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In general it is the reciprical action of the hormones of the fed and fasted state — insulin and glucagon — that are responsible for this, together with the differences in hormone-sensitivity of the glucose transporters in muscle and brain. See the accepted answer to this question: During starvation, does the human body do anything to prioritize which organs ...


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The intracellular receptor for cortisol is called NR3C1. http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P04150 To my knowledge, a direct (competitive) effect of anabolic steroids on the binding of cortisol to NR3C1 has never been proven. The anabolic effects can easily be explained by other targets. A good starting point for further reading might be this review: ...


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Christiaan has answered your first question, it is external constraints that restore the muscle `rest' shape — this is also the case for nonskeletal muscle as the bladder. On question 2, I will give a little more details, broadly based on Huxley 1957: imagine the muscle is trying to contract against something infinitely resistive. Full contraction cannot be ...


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ad 1. : In skeletal muscle, contraction of the antagonist stretches the agonist to its original position (Fig. 1). ad 2. : Yes, ATP generates a fixed amount of energy that limits the force generated. Fig. 1. Agonist/antagonist pairs in the skeletal musculature have opposing actions. source: wikipedia


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Evolutionary tools that are not needed for increased survival rate of offspring of a certain lineage deteriorate with time. The deterioration might have a form of gene expression changes or mutation accumulation. For example, gene MYH16 encodes a protein that facilitates strong jaw muscles in primates, but humans carry a mutated gene that had lost its ...



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